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Modern Optical Information Processing Second Edition

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The publication time of the second edition of modern optical information processing: the 2014 edition Introduction "Modern Optical Information Processing (Second Edition)" discusses the basic theory and important applications of optical information processing, and introduces the cutting-edge research results and development trends of this discipline. The book is divided into nine chapters. In the basic part, the Fourier optics principle, classical optical information processing, incoherent optical information processing, photoelectric hybrid processing, Fourier analysis and image quality evaluation of imaging optical systems, spatial light modulators, etc. are discussed. ; In the application section, the application of Fourier optics in the fields of optical communication and astronomical observation is introduced; in the relevant sections, the Fourier transform spectrometer, optical tomography (OCT), Michael Sun stellar interferometer, "optical coding" -Digital Electronic Decoding "Objective lens depth of field expansion, optical communication devices: acousto-optic filters, tunable routers, fiber Bragg gratings, arrayed waveguide gratings, acousto-optic frequency-shift Doppler laser velocimeters, stellar speckle information processing Application of astronomy binary star resolution, adaptive optical information processing for atmospheric turbulence imaging. This book also briefly discusses the interdisciplinary development in recent years: astrophotonics, and introduces photonic crystallography in an appendix. "Modern Optical Information Processing (Second Edition)" can be used as a textbook or teaching reference book for senior students and graduate students in the majors of Optoelectronic Information Science and Engineering, Physics, Applied Physics, Measurement and Control Technology and Instruments, etc. Development of scientific and technical personnel reference.
Chapter 1 Introduction to Optical Information Processing …………………………………………………… 1
§1.1 Spatial frequency and grating diffraction of graphic images ……………………………… 1
1.1.1 Low and high frequencies of graphic images ………………………………………… 1
1.1.2 Grating diffraction ………………………………………………… 2
1.1.3 Transformation effect of lens ……………………………………………… 3
§1.2 Fourier transform function of lens focusing and collimation ... ………………………… 3
1.2.1 Plane wave ………………………………………………………… 3
1.2.2 Fourier Transform with Lens ………………………………………… 4
1.2.3 Translation invariance ... ……………………………………………… 6
§1.3 Low Frequency Filtering and Grid Elimination ………………………………………… 7
§1.4 Fourier transform characteristics of far-field diffraction ... 7
1.4.1 Approximation of Far-field Diffraction ……………………………………………… 7
1.4.2 Fourier Transform Solution of Far-field Diffraction ……………………………………… 8
§1.5 Optical image recognition and Young's interference experiment ... ……………………………… 9
1.5.1 Optical Image Recognition …………………………………………………… 9
1.5.2 Young's interference experiment …………………………………………………… 9
§1.6 Conclusion ………………………………………………………… 11
Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Fourier Optics ……………………………………………… 13
§2.1 Two-dimensional Fourier analysis ... ………………………………………… 13
2.1.1 Definition and conditions of existence ……………………………………………… 13
2.1.2 Fourier Transform of the δ Function ... ………………………………………… 13
2.1.3 Basic properties of Fourier transform ...
2.1.4 Convolution ... …………………………………………………… 15
2.1.5 Correlation, Parseval's Theorem and Power Spectrum ...
2.1.6 Special Functions and Their Fourier Transforms ... …………………………………… 19
2.1.7 Fourier-Bezier Transform ………………………………………… 21
2.1.8 Two-dimensional Fourier transform table ... ………………………………………… 22
§2.2 Angular Spectrum and Scalar Diffraction of Plane Waves ……………………………………
2.2.1 Angle spectrum ………………………………………………………… 23
2.2.2 Propagation of angular spectrum ......... ……………………………………………… 25
2.2.3 Fresnel diffraction …………………………………………………… 25
2.2.4 Fraunhofer Diffraction ………………………………………………… 26
§2.3 Fourier transform properties of lens system …………………………………… 28
2.3.1 Optical Fourier Transformer ………………………………………… 28
2.3.2 Strict derivation of lens Fourier transform ...
§2.4 Relation between spatial bandwidth product and uncertainty …………………………………… 33
2.4.1 Aperture function and band-limited signal ...
2.4.2 The resolution of the system ... ……………………………………………… 34
2.4.3 Relationship between Equivalent Bandwidth and Uncertainty ...
2.4.4 Strict Derivation of General Uncertainty Relations …………………………………… 36
References ... ……………………………………………………………… 38
Chapter 3 Classical Optical Information Processing ……………………………………………… 39
§3.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………… 39
§3.2 Early development of optical information processing ... …………………………………… 39
§3.3 Fourier Processor …………………………………………………… 41
§3.4 Linear Space Invariant Systems and Transfer Functions ...
3.4.1 Linear systems and convolutions ……………………………………………… 44
3.4.2 Linear Space Invariant Systems ... ………………………………………… 45
§3.5 Fourier transform lens ……………………………………………… 46
§3.6 Spatial filtering ………………………………………………………… 50
§3.7 Restoration of Photographs ... ……………………………………………… 52
§3.8 Holography ……………………………………………………………… 53
§3.9 Fourier Transform Hologram ... ………………………………………… 54
§3.10 Optical correlation and convolution ... ………………………………………… 57
§3.11 Conclusion …………………………………………………………… 60
References ... …………………………………………………………………… 60
Chapter 4 Non-coherent optical information processing ………………………………………… 62
§4.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………… 62
§4.2 Young's Interferometer and Spatial Coherence ……………………………………… 62
§4.3 Formation of non-coherent images ...... ………………………………………… 65
§4.4 Measurement of MTF …………………………………………………… 66
§4.5 Non-coherent spatial filtering ... ……………………………………………… 68
§4.6 Anti-pixel technology for projection display ………………………………………… 69
2 Modern optical information processing §4.7 Michelson interferometer and time coherence ...
§4.8 Fourier transform spectrometer ……………………………………………… 72
§4.9 Optical Coherence Tomography ………………………………………………… 74
§4.10 Computational Tomography …………………………………………………… 78
§4.11 Michelson Stellar Interferometer ………………………………………… 80
§4.12 Conclusion …………………………………………………………… 82
References ... ……………………………………………………………… 83
Chapter 5 Optoelectronic Hybrid Processing ......... ……………………………………………… 84
§5.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………… 84
§5.2 Joint Fourier Transform ……………………………………………… 84
5.2.1 Classical Joint Fourier Transform ………………………………………… 84
5.2.2 Real-time joint Fourier correlator ………………………………………… 86
5.2.3 Photoelectric Hybrid Processing Joint Transform Correlator ………………………………… 90
5.2.4 Rotating Invariant Union Correlator …………………………………………
§5.3 Depth-of-field extension technology of wavefront coding ………………………………………… 92
§5.4 Cross-field processing depth-of-field extension technology
§5.5 Digital refocusing technology of light field camera ... …………………………………… 97
§5.6 Using Star Speckle Interferometry to Resolve Binary Stars ……………………………… 101
5.6.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………… 101
5.6.2 Stellar Speckle Interferometry Applied to Binary Star Resolution ...
5.6.3 Stellar Speckle Information Processing …………………………………………
5.6.4 Application of Stellar Speckle Interferometry ...
References ……………………………………………………………………
Chapter 6 Fourier Analysis and Image Quality Evaluation of Imaging Systems ……………………………………
§6.1 Fundamentals of Geometrical Optics (I) ………………………………………………
6.1.1 General model ……………………………………………………
6.1.2 Thin-lens imaging ...
6.1.3 Correcting spherical and chromatic aberrations with double cemented lenses ...
6.1.4 Second-order spectrum and apochromatism …………………………………………
6.1.5 Kirk's Three-Piece, Tense and Double Gauss Objectives ...
6.1.6 Aperture and pupil, spatial bandwidth product ...
§6.2 Fundamentals of Geometrical Optics (II) ………………………………………… 116
6.2.1 Main and focal planes ... ……………………………………………… 116
6.2.2 Total system length and back working distance, telephoto and anti-telephoto objectives ...
Directory 3
6.2.3 Lateral aberrations and characteristic curves of monochromatic light ……………………………………
6.2.4 Diffuse spots ... …………………………………………………… 121
6.2.5 Horizontal chromatic aberration …………………………………………………… 121
6.2.6 Distortion …………………………………………………… 121
6.2.7 Telecentric Objectives for Machine Vision ………………………………………… 122
6.2.8 Optical Design and Typical Imaging Objectives …………………………………… 123
§6.3 Imaging of Coherent and Incoherent Light ...
6.3.1 Impulse response and superposition integration under diffraction limit conditions ...
6.3.2 Coherent light transfer function ………………………………………………
6.3.3 Non-coherent light point spread function and optical transfer function ...
6.3.4 Point spread function and optical transfer function of diffraction-limited incoherent optical systems ...
§6.4 Optical transfer function ...... ………………………………………………
6.4.1 The Spatial Frequency Concept of an Image …………………………………………
6.4.2 Effect of aberrations on optical transfer functions ...
6.4.3 Optical transfer function for optical design evaluation ...
6.4.4 Detector array CCD, CMOS and device cut-off frequency ...
6.4.5 Matching of the detector and the optical system ……………………………………
§6.5 Measurement of Optical Transfer Function ………………………………………… 138
6.5.1 Line spread function ……………………………………………………
6.5.2 Measurement of the optical transfer function …………………………………………
References ... ……………………………………………………………………
Chapter 7 Spatial Light Modulators ……………………………………………………… 142
§7.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………
7.1.1 Significance and Classification of Spatial Modulators ……………………………………
7.1.2 Classification of Spatial Light Modulators …………………………………………
7.1.3 Electrically Addressable Spatial Light Modulators …………………………………………
7.1.4 Optically Addressed Spatial Light Modulators …………………………………………
7.1.5 Commonly Used Spatial Light Modulators …………………………………………
§7.2 Distortion effect of liquid crystal and thin film transistor driven liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) ... 146
7.2.1 LCD ...... ……………………………………………………
7.2.2 Propagation of polarized light in a distorted medium ...
7.2.3 Working principle of twisted nematic liquid crystal cell ...
7.2.4 Active Matrix Driven Liquid Crystal Display (TFT-LCD) ...
7.2.5 LCD flat-panel display and projection display ……………………………………
§7.3 Liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) ... 153
7.3.1 LCLV readout optical path ………………………………………………
7.3.2 Structure and working principle of liquid crystal light valve ...... ………………………………
§7.4 LCOS spatial light modulator ……………………………………
§7.5 Digital Light Processing (DLP) and Digital Projection ...
7.5.1 DMD structure and working principle ...
7.5.2 Sequential Color Mode Single Board Projector ...
7.5.3 Three-panel projector with spatial separation mode ……………………………………
7.5.4 Brief Introduction to DMD Production Process ………………………………………… 160
7.5.5 Features of DLP digital projection technology ...
7.5.6 Application of DLP ……………………………………………………
§7.6 Application of DLP in Tunable Fiber Lasers ...
References ... …………………………………………………………………… 166
Chapter 8 Application of Fourier Optics in Optical Communication …………………………………… 168
§8.1 Brief Introduction to the Foundation and Development History of Fiber Optic Communication …………………………………… 168
8.1.1 Optical Fibers …………………………………………………………
8.1.2 Light Propagation in Optical Fibers and Numerical Aperture of Optical Fibers ...
8.1.3 Frequently used bands and transmission capacity of optical communication ……………………………………
8.1.4 Early innovations in fiber-optic communication …………………………………………
8.1.5 Two major technological revolutions: Erbium-doped fiber amplification and wavelength division multiplexing ...
8.1.6 Recent Developments in Optical Communication Systems and the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics ...
§8.2 Propagation of Light Waves in Optical Fibers …………………………………………
8.2.1 Weak Guided Fibers ...... ………………………………………………
8.2.2 Transverse propagation constants, attenuation coefficients, and V parameters ...
8.2.3 Guide molds …………………………………………………………
8.2.4 Characteristic Equations of LP Modules ………………………………………………
8.2.5 Cut-off frequency of LP mode ...... …………………………………………
8.2.6 Light intensity distribution ……………………………………………………
8.2.7 Basic mode LP01 (HE11) and single-mode fiber ...
8.2.8 Approximate solution of characteristic curve and modulus of multimode fiber when V parameter is very large ...
§8.3 Fourier optical processing of longitudinally distributed optical information ...
8.3.1 Laws of Refraction and Reflection in Differential Form ...
8.3.2 Far-field diffraction of longitudinally distributed optical information ………………………………
§8.4 Fourier Analysis of the Acousto-optic Bragg Effect ... 184
Directory 5
8.4.1 Acousto-optic Bragg Effect ………………………………………………
8.4.2 Fourier analysis of the acousto-optic Bragg effect 185
8.4.3 Acousto-optic Bragg diffraction in an isotropic medium ...
8.4.4 Bragg reflectors …………………………………………………
8.4.5 Bragg diffraction in anisotropic media ...
8.4.6 Bandwidth ... …………………………………………………………
§8.5 Acousto-optical Frequency Shift Doppler Laser Velocimeter ...
8.5.1 The Doppler Effect ...... ………………………………………………
8.5.2 Acousto-optical Frequency Shift Laser Doppler Velocimeter ...
8.5.3 Fourier analysis of output light field of acousto-optic frequency-shift Doppler velocimeter ...
8.5.4 Acousto-optic Frequency Shift Components ...... ………………………………………………
§8.6 Acousto-optic Polarization Conversion Filter and Adjustable Router ……………………………… 195
8.6.1 Tunable filter for acousto-optic polarization conversion ……………………………………
8.6.2 Acousto-optic Polarization Beamsplitters and Acousto-Optic Tunable Routers ...
§8.7 Fourier analysis of the working principle of fiber Bragg gratings ……………………………… 199
8.7.1 Introduction ——— Fabrication of Fiber Bragg Grating ……………………………………
8.7.2 Apodectomy ………………………………………………………… 200
§8.8 Application of Fiber Bragg Grating in Optical Communication ……………………………… 202
8.8.1 Fiber Filter ...
8.8.2 Fiber Lasers ... ……………………………………………… 204
8.8.3 Dispersion Compensator ...... ………………………………………………
8.8.4 The gain of EDFA is flat ………………………………………………
8.8.5 Optical Add-Drop Multiplexer ………………………………………………
§8.9 Arrayed Waveguide Grating ………………………………………………… 208
8.9.1 Working Principle of Arrayed Waveguide Gratings …………………………………………
8.9.2 Dispersion …………………………………………………………
8.9.3 AWG's response to WDM signals and linear filtering ...
8.9.4 Spectral line width and resolution ……………………………………………… 210
8.9.5 Free spectral range and fineness ............ ………………………………
§8.10 Application of AWG in Optical Communication …………………………………………
8.10.1 AWG Multiplexer / Demultiplexer ……………………………………………
8.10.2 Optical filters …………………………………………………………
8.10.3 Waveguide Grating Router ………………………………………………
8.10.4 Optical Add / Drop Multiplexers ………………………………………………
6 Modern Optical Information Processing 8.10.5 AWG Spectrum Analyzer ……………………………………………
8.10.6 Dispersion Compensation ……………………………………………………
8.10.7 Multi-wavelength light sources …………………………………………………… 216
References ... …………………………………………………………………… 217
Chapter 9 Optical Information Processing and Astrophotonics in Astronomical Observations ...
§9.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………
9.1.1 Astronomical and Astronomical Observations ...
9.1.2 Composition of astronomical observation bands and observation systems ...
9.1.3 Large and Giant Optical / Infrared Telescopes ...
9.1.4 Evaluation indicators of imaging quality ………………………………………………
9.1.5 Improving imaging quality, active optics and adaptive optics ...
9.1.6 Modern astronomical image information processing and astronomical photonics ...
§9.2 Information Processing of Atmospheric Turbulence Imaging ………………………………………… 228
9.2.1 Atmospheric turbulence model …………………………………………………
9.2.2 Horizontal Lines of Point Light Sources (Stars), Extended Light Sources (Planets) and Space Coherence ...
9.2.3 Long-exposure imaging transfer function and Fried parameter r0 ………………………… 230
9.2.4 Equivalent bandwidth, resolution, and atmospheric seeing ...
9.2.5 Short-exposure imaging and "luckyimaging" ... 234
9.2.6 Iso-halo area ……………………………………………………
§9.3 Correction of Wavefront Distortion Using Adaptive Optics …………………………………… 236
9.3.1 Basic Principles of Phase Compensation ...... …………………………………………
9.3.2 Stages of wavefront distortion ............ …………………………………………
9.3.3 Single conjugate adaptive optical phase detection and correction system ...
9.3.4 Sampling interval …………………………………………………… 240
9.3.5 Evaluation of Strelby and AO Corrected Images ...... ………………………………
9.3.6 Early results of adaptive optics applied to astronomical observations ...
9.3.7 Laser-Guided Stars …………………………………………………
9.3.8 Scientific achievements of adaptive astronomy …………………………………………
§9.4 Coupling of Multimode Fiber and Telescope Output Image ...
9.4.1 Transmission of images of celestial bodies with optical fibers …………………………………………
9.4.2 etendue analysis …………………………………………………
9.4.3 Relationship between modulus M of multimode fiber and etendue ...
§9.5 Filtering of Infrared OH Emission Spectrum with Composite Fiber Grating …………………… 248
9.5.1 OH background radiation in the near-infrared night sky ... 248
Directory 7
9.5.2 The Inverse Proposition of the Fiber Bragg Gratings …………………………………
9.5.3 Suppression of OH Emission Spectrum Using Non-Period Bragg Fiber Grating Filters ...
§9.6 Coupling of Multimode Fiber and Single Mode Fiber Bundle —— "Photon Lantern" …………………… 251
9.6.1 "Photon Lantern" ...... ………………………………………………
9.6.2 Entropy of the "Photon Lantern" transmission process ...... ………………………………
§9.7 Photon Integrated Multimode Spectrometer and Arrayed Waveguide Grating ... 255
9.7.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………… 255
9.7.2 Photon Integrated Multimode Spectrometer ………………………………………… 255
9.7.3 Introduction to Arrayed Waveguide Gratings …………………………………………… 256
9.7.4 Integrated Photon Spectrometer ………………………………………………
9.7.5 Preliminary conclusions and prospects of the integrated photon spectrometer ...
§9.8 Integrated Standing Wave Fourier Transform Spectrometer ………………………………………
9.8.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………
9.8.2 Integrated Standing Wave Fourier Transform Spectral Analysis ...... ………………………………
9.8.3 Discussion ………………………………………………………………
9.8.4 Summary of Astronomical Photonics ………………………………………………
References …………………………………………………………………………
Appendix A Propagation of Polarized Light in a Linearly Twisted Medium …………………………………
Appendix B Introduction to the theory of fiber grating coupling mode ………………………………………………
§B.1 Fiber Grating Coupling Mode Theory ………………………………………… 271
§B.2 Analytical Solution of Uniform Fiber Bragg Grating ... 274
§B.3 Analytical method of transmission matrix for non-uniform fiber grating ……………………………… 276
Appendix C. Photonic Crystals …………………………………………………………
§C.1 Basic Concepts of Photonic Crystals …………………………………………
C.1.1 Bragg diffraction of light waves in a crystal ...
C.1.2 Classification of photonic crystals ……………………………………………… 281
C.1.3 Principles and research methods of photonic crystals ……………………………………
C.1.4 Properties of photonic crystals ………………………………………………
§C.2 Preparation method of photonic crystal ………………………………………………
C.2.1 Self-organized growth of three-dimensional photonic crystals …………………………………… 286
C.2.2 Preparation of flat photonic crystals using microfabrication techniques ………………………………
§C.3 Photonic Crystal Optical Waveguide ………………………………………………
C.3.1 Principles of Photonic Crystal Optical Waveguide …………………………………………
8 Modern Optical Information Processing C.3.2 Structure of Photonic Crystal Optical Waveguides 292
C.3.3 Measurement of Photonic Crystal Optical Waveguides ………………………………………
§C.4 Photonic crystal microcavity laser …………………………………………
C.4.1 The characteristics and development of microcavity lasers ……………………………………
C.4.2 Design of photonic crystal microcavity lasers ……………………………………
C.4.3 Electrically driving a single-defect microcavity photonic crystal laser ………………………………
C.4.4 Photonic crystal laser with special structure ……………………………………
§C.5 Photonic crystal fiber …………………………………………………… 301
C.5.1 Transmission properties of photonic crystal fibers ...... ………………………………
C.5.2 Optical devices based on PCF …………………………………………
References ... …………………………………………………………………… 306
Noun index ... ………………………………………………………………………… 311
Postscript of the author ………………………………………………………………………………

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