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Converter of photovoltaic and wind power generation systems and networks: (Dan) 特奥多雷斯库 waiting, Zhouke Liang, Wang Zheng, Xu Qingshan translated Published: 2012

Introduction Grid-connected converters are important for connecting renewable energy to the power grid. With the continuous expansion of the scale of renewable energy access to the power grid, the requirements imposed by the grid connection have become increasingly strict. Current grid-connected converters are required to have some advanced functions, such as dynamic control of active and reactive power, the system can operate in a larger voltage and frequency range, low-voltage fault ride-through, reactive current injection under grid faults, and support for the grid Voltage, etc. This book introduces the current structures, modulation strategies, and control methods commonly used in photovoltaic and wind power grid-connected converters. In addition to the knowledge of power electronics, this book also covers some other technologies related to photovoltaics and wind power systems and the grid. According to the current grid connection requirements of photovoltaic and wind power systems, this book mainly discusses the following contents: topology of grid-connected converters for photovoltaic and wind power generation; island detection methods for photovoltaic systems; grid synchronization technology based on generalized second-order integrators ; High-performance synchronous technology of converter under asymmetric fault of power grid; Proportional resonance controller technology for current control and harmonic compensation; grid-connected filter design and active damping technology; Power control method. This book is suitable for graduate students with electrical engineering background and professional technicians related to renewable energy.

Biography Translator's Preface Prologue Preface Author Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Progress of wind power

1.2 Progress of photovoltaic power generation

1.3 Grid-connected Converters—Key Elements for Grid-connected Wind Power and Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems References Chapter 2 Structure of Photovoltaic Inverters

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Inverter structure derived from H-bridge topology

2.2.1 Basic Full-Bridge Inverter

2.2.2 2H5 Inverter (SMA)

2.2.3 Heric Inverter (Sunways)

2.2.4 REFU inverter

2.2.5 Full-Bridge Inverter with DC Bypass——FB-DCBP (Ingeteam)

2.2.6 Full Bridge Zero Voltage Rectifier——FB-ZVR

2.2.7 Topological Summary Derived from H-Bridge

2.3 Inverter structure derived from NPC topology

2.3.1 Midpoint Clamped (NPC) Half-Bridge Inverter

2.3.2 Conergy NPC Inverter

2.3.3 Summary of inverter topology derived from NPC

2.4 Typical photovoltaic inverter structure

2.4.1 H-bridge step-up photovoltaic inverter with high-frequency transformer

2.4.2 Step-up inverter with low frequency transformer

2.5 Three-phase photovoltaic inverter

2.6 Control Structure

2.7 Conclusions and Future Trends References Chapter 3 PV Grid-connected Standards

3.1 Introduction

3.2 International Standards

3.2.1 IEEE 1547 distributed generation grid-connected standard

3.2.2 IEC 61727 power equipment interface characteristics

3.2.3 VDE 0126-1-1 Security

3.2.4 IEC 61000 electromagnetic compatibility (EMC-low frequency)

3.2.5 Voltage quality of EN 50160 public power distribution system

3.3 Response characteristics in abnormal state of power grid

3.3.1 Voltage deviation

3.3.2 Frequency deviation

3.3.3 Resume grid connection

3.4 Power Quality

3.4.1 DC current injection

3.4.2 Current harmonics

3.4.3 average power factor

3.5 Anti-Islanding Requirements

3.5.1 IEEE 1547 / UL 1741 definition of anti-islanding

3.5.2 IEC 62116 definition of anti-islanding

3.5.3 VDE 0126-1-1 definition of anti-islanding

3.6 Summary References Chapter 4 Grid synchronization of single-phase power converters

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Grid synchronization technology for single-phase systems

4.2.1 Power grid synchronization using Fourier analysis

4.2.2 Grid synchronization using phase-locked loop

4.3 Phase angle detection method based on orthogonal signals

4.4 Some PLLs based on quadrature signal generators

4.4.1 PLL based on T / 4 transmission delay

4.4.2 PLL based on Hilbert transform

4.4.3 Inverse Park-based PLL

4.5 Some PLLs based on adaptive filters

4.5.1 Improved PLL

4.5.22 order adaptive filter

4.5.32 Generalized Integrator

4.5.4 PLL based on 2nd-order generalized integrator

4.62th-order generalized integrator frequency-locked loop

Analysis of 4.6.12-order generalized integrator frequency-locked loop

4.7 Summary References Chapter 5 Island Detection

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Detection of blind spots

5.3 Overview of island detection methods

5.4 Passive island detection method

5.4.1 Over / under frequency and over / under voltage detection methods

5.4.2 Phase angle jump detection method (PJD)

5.4.3 Harmonic detection method (HD)

5.4.4 Comparison of passive detection methods

5.5 Active Island Detection Method

5.5.1 Frequency drift method

5.5.2 Voltage drift method

5.5.3 Grid impedance estimation method

5.5.4 Island detection method based on phase-locked loop

5.5.5 Comparison of active island detection methods

5.6 Summary References Chapter 6 Wind Turbine System Grid-connected Converter Structure

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Wind power system structure

6.3 Grid-connected converter topology

6.3.1 Single cell converter (VSC or CSC)

6.3.2 Multi-unit converter (interleaved or cascaded)

6.4 Wind power system control

6.4.1 Generator side control

6.4.2 Grid-connected control of wind power system

6.5 Summary References Chapter 7 Grid Connection Requirements for Fan Systems

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Evolution of grid-connected standards

7.2.1 Denmark

7.2.2 Germany

7.2.3 Spain

7.2.4 United Kingdom

7.2.5 Ireland

7.2.6 United States

7.2.7 China

7.2.8 Summary

7.3 Frequency and voltage offset under normal operating conditions

7.4 Active power control under normal operating conditions

7.4.1 Power limited output

7.4.2 Frequency control

7.5 Reactive power control under normal operating conditions

7.5.1 Germany

7.5.2 Spain

7.5.3 Denmark

7.5.4 United Kingdom

7.5.5 Ireland

7.5.6 United States

7.6 Operating conditions under grid disturbances

7.6.1 Germany

7.6.2 Spain

7.6.3 Western Electric Power Coordinating Committee

7.7 Discussion on Harmonics in Grid-connected Specifications

7.8 Future trends

7.8.1 Local voltage control

7.8.2 Inertial simulation (IE)

7.8.3 Power Oscillation Damping (POD)

7.9 Summary References Chapter 8. Grid synchronization of three-phase power converters

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Three-phase voltage vector in case of grid fault

8.2.1 Asymmetric grid voltage in case of grid failure

8.2.2 Transient power grid failure and voltage sag

8.2.3 Derivation of voltage drop

8.3 Phase-locked loop of synchronous reference frame under asymmetric and distorted power grid conditions

8.4 Decoupled Dual Synchronous Reference Frame Phase-Locked Loop (DDSRF-PLL)

8.4.1 Double synchronous reference coordinate system

8.4.2 Decoupling Network

8.4.3 Analysis of decoupling double synchronous reference coordinate system

8.4.4 Structure and response of the phase-locked loop of the decoupled dual synchronous reference frame

8.5 Double 2nd order generalized integrator frequency-locked loop (DSOGI-FLL)

8.5.1 Structure of a double 2nd-order generalized integrator

8.5.2 Relation between a bi 2nd-order generalized integrator and a decoupled bi-synchronous reference coordinate system

8.5.3 Frequency-locked loop corresponding to double 2nd-order generalized integrator

8.5.4 Response of the frequency-locked loop of a double 2nd-order generalized integrator

8.6 Summary References Chapter 9 Control of grid-connected converters for wind power systems

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Converter Model

9.2.1 Mathematical model of 1L filter inverter

9.2.2 Mathematical model of LCL filter inverter

9.3 AC voltage and DC voltage control

9.3.1 DC bus voltage control

9.3.2 DC bus voltage cascade control by AC current control

9.3.3 Adjustment of PI controller

9.3.4 Design Example of Voltage Control Based on PI

9.4 Voltage directional control and direct power control

9.4.1 Voltage-oriented control of synchronous coordinate system: PQ open-loop control

9.4.2 Voltage-oriented control of synchronous coordinate system: PQ closed-loop control

9.4.3 Voltage-oriented control of stationary coordinate system: PQ open-loop control

9.4.4 Voltage-oriented control of stationary coordinate system: PQ closed-loop control

9.4.5 Control based on virtual magnetic flux

9.4.6 Direct Power Control

9.5 Off-grid, microgrid, droop control and grid support

9.5.1 On-grid / off-grid operation without load distribution

9.5.2 Microgrid operation with controllable energy storage device

9.5.3 Sagging control

9.6 Summary References Chapter 10 Grid-connected converter control in the event of a power grid failure

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Overview of control technology for grid-connected converters under asymmetric grid voltage conditions

10.3 Control Structures for Asymmetric Current Injection

10.3.1 Decoupled double-synchronous coordinate system current controller for asymmetric current injection

10.3.2 Resonant controller for asymmetric current injection

10.4 Power Control in Asymmetric Grid Conditions

10.4.1 Instantaneous Active-Reactive Control (IARC)

10.4.2 Positive and negative sequence control (PNSC)

10.4.3 Average Active-Reactive Control (AARC)

10.4.4 Symmetric Positive Sequence Control (BPSC)

10.4.5 Performance comparison of IARC, PNSC, AARC and BPSC strategies

10.4.6 Flexible positive and negative sequence control (FPNSC)

10.5 Flexible Power Control with Current Limit

10.5.1 Current vector trajectory under asymmetric grid conditions

10.5.2 Instantaneous value of three-phase current

10.5.3 Estimate of maximum current of each phase

10.5.4 Estimates of maximum active and reactive power setpoints

10.5.5 Performance of Flexible Positive and Negative Sequence Control

10.6 Summary References Chapter 11 Grid-connected Filter Design

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Filter topology

11.3 Design considerations

11.4 Example of Interaction between LCL Filter and Power Grid

11.5 Resonance Problems and Damping Solutions

11.5.1 Instability of undamped current control loop

11.5.2 Passive damping of the current control loop

11.5.3 Active damping of the current control loop

11.6 Nonlinear characteristics of filters

11.7 Summary References Chapter 12 Grid-connected Current Control

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Harmonic standards for grid-connected current

12.3 Independently Modulated Linear Current Control

12.3.1 Averaging technology

12.3.2 PI control

12.3.3 Deadbeat control

12.3.4 Resonant control

12.3.5 Harmonic compensation

12.4 Modulation Technology

12.4.1 Single-phase modulation

12.4.2 Three-phase modulation

12.4.3 Multilevel modulation

12.4.4 Interleaved modulation

12.5 Limitations of Operation of Current Controlled Converters

12.6 Examples

12.7 Summary References Appendix Appendix A Three-phase system space vector transformation

A. 1 Introduction

A. 2 symmetrical components in the frequency domain

A. 3 Symmetrical components in the time domain

A. 4 αβ0 component in stationary reference frame

A. 5 dq0 component in synchronous reference coordinate system

B. 1 Introduction

B. 2 Origin of power definition for single-phase systems in the time domain

B. 3 Origin of active current in polyphase systems

B. 4 Instantaneous calculation of power current in polyphase systems

B. 5p-q theory

B. 6 Generalized pq theory for arbitrary polyphase systems

B. 7 Improved pq theory

B. 8 Generalized instantaneous reactive power theory for three-phase power systems

B. 9 Summary References Appendix C Resonant Controller

C. 1 Introduction

C. 2 internal model principle

C. Equivalence of PI controller in 3dq coordinate system and PR controller in αβ coordinate system

Introduction Grid-connected converters are important for connecting renewable energy to the power grid. With the continuous expansion of the scale of renewable energy access to the power grid, the requirements imposed by the grid connection have become increasingly strict. Current grid-connected converters are required to have some advanced functions, such as dynamic control of active and reactive power, the system can operate in a larger voltage and frequency range, low-voltage fault ride-through, reactive current injection under grid faults, and support for the grid Voltage, etc. This book introduces the current structures, modulation strategies, and control methods commonly used in photovoltaic and wind power grid-connected converters. In addition to the knowledge of power electronics, this book also covers some other technologies related to photovoltaics and wind power systems and the grid. According to the current grid connection requirements of photovoltaic and wind power systems, this book mainly discusses the following contents: topology of grid-connected converters for photovoltaic and wind power generation; island detection methods for photovoltaic systems; grid synchronization technology based on generalized second-order integrators ; High-performance synchronous technology of converter under asymmetric fault of power grid; Proportional resonance controller technology for current control and harmonic compensation; grid-connected filter design and active damping technology; Power control method. This book is suitable for graduate students with electrical engineering background and professional technicians related to renewable energy.

Biography Translator's Preface Prologue Preface Author Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Progress of wind power

1.2 Progress of photovoltaic power generation

1.3 Grid-connected Converters—Key Elements for Grid-connected Wind Power and Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems References Chapter 2 Structure of Photovoltaic Inverters

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Inverter structure derived from H-bridge topology

2.2.1 Basic Full-Bridge Inverter

2.2.2 2H5 Inverter (SMA)

2.2.3 Heric Inverter (Sunways)

2.2.4 REFU inverter

2.2.5 Full-Bridge Inverter with DC Bypass——FB-DCBP (Ingeteam)

2.2.6 Full Bridge Zero Voltage Rectifier——FB-ZVR

2.2.7 Topological Summary Derived from H-Bridge

2.3 Inverter structure derived from NPC topology

2.3.1 Midpoint Clamped (NPC) Half-Bridge Inverter

2.3.2 Conergy NPC Inverter

2.3.3 Summary of inverter topology derived from NPC

2.4 Typical photovoltaic inverter structure

2.4.1 H-bridge step-up photovoltaic inverter with high-frequency transformer

2.4.2 Step-up inverter with low frequency transformer

2.5 Three-phase photovoltaic inverter

2.6 Control Structure

2.7 Conclusions and Future Trends References Chapter 3 PV Grid-connected Standards

3.1 Introduction

3.2 International Standards

3.2.1 IEEE 1547 distributed generation grid-connected standard

3.2.2 IEC 61727 power equipment interface characteristics

3.2.3 VDE 0126-1-1 Security

3.2.4 IEC 61000 electromagnetic compatibility (EMC-low frequency)

3.2.5 Voltage quality of EN 50160 public power distribution system

3.3 Response characteristics in abnormal state of power grid

3.3.1 Voltage deviation

3.3.2 Frequency deviation

3.3.3 Resume grid connection

3.4 Power Quality

3.4.1 DC current injection

3.4.2 Current harmonics

3.4.3 average power factor

3.5 Anti-Islanding Requirements

3.5.1 IEEE 1547 / UL 1741 definition of anti-islanding

3.5.2 IEC 62116 definition of anti-islanding

3.5.3 VDE 0126-1-1 definition of anti-islanding

3.6 Summary References Chapter 4 Grid synchronization of single-phase power converters

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Grid synchronization technology for single-phase systems

4.2.1 Power grid synchronization using Fourier analysis

4.2.2 Grid synchronization using phase-locked loop

4.3 Phase angle detection method based on orthogonal signals

4.4 Some PLLs based on quadrature signal generators

4.4.1 PLL based on T / 4 transmission delay

4.4.2 PLL based on Hilbert transform

4.4.3 Inverse Park-based PLL

4.5 Some PLLs based on adaptive filters

4.5.1 Improved PLL

4.5.22 order adaptive filter

4.5.32 Generalized Integrator

4.5.4 PLL based on 2nd-order generalized integrator

4.62th-order generalized integrator frequency-locked loop

Analysis of 4.6.12-order generalized integrator frequency-locked loop

4.7 Summary References Chapter 5 Island Detection

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Detection of blind spots

5.3 Overview of island detection methods

5.4 Passive island detection method

5.4.1 Over / under frequency and over / under voltage detection methods

5.4.2 Phase angle jump detection method (PJD)

5.4.3 Harmonic detection method (HD)

5.4.4 Comparison of passive detection methods

5.5 Active Island Detection Method

5.5.1 Frequency drift method

5.5.2 Voltage drift method

5.5.3 Grid impedance estimation method

5.5.4 Island detection method based on phase-locked loop

5.5.5 Comparison of active island detection methods

5.6 Summary References Chapter 6 Wind Turbine System Grid-connected Converter Structure

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Wind power system structure

6.3 Grid-connected converter topology

6.3.1 Single cell converter (VSC or CSC)

6.3.2 Multi-unit converter (interleaved or cascaded)

6.4 Wind power system control

6.4.1 Generator side control

6.4.2 Grid-connected control of wind power system

6.5 Summary References Chapter 7 Grid Connection Requirements for Fan Systems

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Evolution of grid-connected standards

7.2.1 Denmark

7.2.2 Germany

7.2.3 Spain

7.2.4 United Kingdom

7.2.5 Ireland

7.2.6 United States

7.2.7 China

7.2.8 Summary

7.3 Frequency and voltage offset under normal operating conditions

7.4 Active power control under normal operating conditions

7.4.1 Power limited output

7.4.2 Frequency control

7.5 Reactive power control under normal operating conditions

7.5.1 Germany

7.5.2 Spain

7.5.3 Denmark

7.5.4 United Kingdom

7.5.5 Ireland

7.5.6 United States

7.6 Operating conditions under grid disturbances

7.6.1 Germany

7.6.2 Spain

7.6.3 Western Electric Power Coordinating Committee

7.7 Discussion on Harmonics in Grid-connected Specifications

7.8 Future trends

7.8.1 Local voltage control

7.8.2 Inertial simulation (IE)

7.8.3 Power Oscillation Damping (POD)

7.9 Summary References Chapter 8. Grid synchronization of three-phase power converters

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Three-phase voltage vector in case of grid fault

8.2.1 Asymmetric grid voltage in case of grid failure

8.2.2 Transient power grid failure and voltage sag

8.2.3 Derivation of voltage drop

8.3 Phase-locked loop of synchronous reference frame under asymmetric and distorted power grid conditions

8.4 Decoupled Dual Synchronous Reference Frame Phase-Locked Loop (DDSRF-PLL)

8.4.1 Double synchronous reference coordinate system

8.4.2 Decoupling Network

8.4.3 Analysis of decoupling double synchronous reference coordinate system

8.4.4 Structure and response of the phase-locked loop of the decoupled dual synchronous reference frame

8.5 Double 2nd order generalized integrator frequency-locked loop (DSOGI-FLL)

8.5.1 Structure of a double 2nd-order generalized integrator

8.5.2 Relation between a bi 2nd-order generalized integrator and a decoupled bi-synchronous reference coordinate system

8.5.3 Frequency-locked loop corresponding to double 2nd-order generalized integrator

8.5.4 Response of the frequency-locked loop of a double 2nd-order generalized integrator

8.6 Summary References Chapter 9 Control of grid-connected converters for wind power systems

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Converter Model

9.2.1 Mathematical model of 1L filter inverter

9.2.2 Mathematical model of LCL filter inverter

9.3 AC voltage and DC voltage control

9.3.1 DC bus voltage control

9.3.2 DC bus voltage cascade control by AC current control

9.3.3 Adjustment of PI controller

9.3.4 Design Example of Voltage Control Based on PI

9.4 Voltage directional control and direct power control

9.4.1 Voltage-oriented control of synchronous coordinate system: PQ open-loop control

9.4.2 Voltage-oriented control of synchronous coordinate system: PQ closed-loop control

9.4.3 Voltage-oriented control of stationary coordinate system: PQ open-loop control

9.4.4 Voltage-oriented control of stationary coordinate system: PQ closed-loop control

9.4.5 Control based on virtual magnetic flux

9.4.6 Direct Power Control

9.5 Off-grid, microgrid, droop control and grid support

9.5.1 On-grid / off-grid operation without load distribution

9.5.2 Microgrid operation with controllable energy storage device

9.5.3 Sagging control

9.6 Summary References Chapter 10 Grid-connected converter control in the event of a power grid failure

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Overview of control technology for grid-connected converters under asymmetric grid voltage conditions

10.3 Control Structures for Asymmetric Current Injection

10.3.1 Decoupled double-synchronous coordinate system current controller for asymmetric current injection

10.3.2 Resonant controller for asymmetric current injection

10.4 Power Control in Asymmetric Grid Conditions

10.4.1 Instantaneous Active-Reactive Control (IARC)

10.4.2 Positive and negative sequence control (PNSC)

10.4.3 Average Active-Reactive Control (AARC)

10.4.4 Symmetric Positive Sequence Control (BPSC)

10.4.5 Performance comparison of IARC, PNSC, AARC and BPSC strategies

10.4.6 Flexible positive and negative sequence control (FPNSC)

10.5 Flexible Power Control with Current Limit

10.5.1 Current vector trajectory under asymmetric grid conditions

10.5.2 Instantaneous value of three-phase current

10.5.3 Estimate of maximum current of each phase

10.5.4 Estimates of maximum active and reactive power setpoints

10.5.5 Performance of Flexible Positive and Negative Sequence Control

10.6 Summary References Chapter 11 Grid-connected Filter Design

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Filter topology

11.3 Design considerations

11.4 Example of Interaction between LCL Filter and Power Grid

11.5 Resonance Problems and Damping Solutions

11.5.1 Instability of undamped current control loop

11.5.2 Passive damping of the current control loop

11.5.3 Active damping of the current control loop

11.6 Nonlinear characteristics of filters

11.7 Summary References Chapter 12 Grid-connected Current Control

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Harmonic standards for grid-connected current

12.3 Independently Modulated Linear Current Control

12.3.1 Averaging technology

12.3.2 PI control

12.3.3 Deadbeat control

12.3.4 Resonant control

12.3.5 Harmonic compensation

12.4 Modulation Technology

12.4.1 Single-phase modulation

12.4.2 Three-phase modulation

12.4.3 Multilevel modulation

12.4.4 Interleaved modulation

12.5 Limitations of Operation of Current Controlled Converters

12.6 Examples

12.7 Summary References Appendix Appendix A Three-phase system space vector transformation

A. 1 Introduction

A. 2 symmetrical components in the frequency domain

A. 3 Symmetrical components in the time domain

A. 4 αβ0 component in stationary reference frame

A. 5 dq0 component in synchronous reference coordinate system

B. 1 Introduction

B. 2 Origin of power definition for single-phase systems in the time domain

B. 3 Origin of active current in polyphase systems

B. 4 Instantaneous calculation of power current in polyphase systems

B. 5p-q theory

B. 6 Generalized pq theory for arbitrary polyphase systems

B. 7 Improved pq theory

B. 8 Generalized instantaneous reactive power theory for three-phase power systems

B. 9 Summary References Appendix C Resonant Controller

C. 1 Introduction

C. 2 internal model principle

C. Equivalence of PI controller in 3dq coordinate system and PR controller in αβ coordinate system

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