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# Concise Mechanical Design Manual 2017 Edition

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Concise Mechanical Design Manual Publication Time: 2017 Edition Introduction This manual introduces common data and information, common standards and specifications, common materials, tolerance fits and surface roughness, screw connections, key connections, pin connections, Riveting, welding, bonding, belt drive, chain drive, gear drive, worm drive, shaft, rolling bearing, plain bearing, coupling, clutch, reducer, electric motor, etc. The manual is integrated with the calculation method of general mechanical parts design. This manual is highly practical, comprehensive, and versatile. All the standards involved are new national standards, and it is a concise reference book for mechanical design. This manual can be used as a reference for students in various engineering colleges and related majors in curriculum design and graduation design. It is also suitable for engineering and technical personnel engaged in mechanical design as a reference book and also suitable for production line operators.
Chapter 1 Common Information and Mechanical Formulas
1.1 Common standard code 1
1.1.1 Domestic Standard Code 1
1.1.2 Common International Standard Code 1
1.2 Common measurement units and conversions 2
1.2.1 Legal unit of measure 2
1.2.2 Common physical quantity symbols and their legal units 4
1.2.3 Common measurement units and conversions 6
1.2.4 Priority Number and Priority Number System 9
1.3 Common data 10
1.3.1 Elastic Modulus and Poisson's Ratio of Common Materials 10
1.3.2 Density of common materials 11
1.3.3 Linear Expansion Coefficient of Common Materials 11
1.3.4 Melting points, thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of common metal materials 11
1.3.5 Friction Factors of Common Materials 12
1.3.6 Friction Factors of Objects 12
1.3.7 Efficiency values of mechanical transmissions and bearings 13
1.3.8 Hardness of Common Metal Materials 13
1.3.9 Conversion of hardness and strength of ferrous materials 14
1.4 Common Mathematical Formulas 18
1.4.1 Algebra 18
1.4.2 Trigonometric Functions
1.4.3 Derivatives and Differentials
1.4.4 Geometry Surface Area and Volume 21
1.5 Commonly Used Mechanical Formulas 23
1.5.1 Common Calculation Formulas for Statics 23
1.5.2 Kinematics formulas 26
1.5.3 Formulas for Dynamics 27
1.5.4 Calculation of the object's moment of inertia 29
1.5.5 Strength Theory and Application Scope 30
1.5.6 Calculation formula of material mechanics 31
1.5.7 Calculation formulas for bending moments, deflections and corners of beams of equal section 34
1.5.8 Geometry of the Section 38
Chapter 2 Common Engineering Materials
2.1 Ferrous materials 42
2.1.1 Structural Steel
2.1.2 Special Purpose Steel 56
2.1.3 Cast steel, cast iron 69
2.2 Common Non-Ferrous Metal Materials 72
2.2.1 Copper and Copper Alloys
2.2.2 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
2.3 Common Plastics
2.3.1 Characteristics and Applications of Common Thermoplastics 82
2.3.2 Characteristics and Applications of Common Thermosetting Plastics 84
2.3.3 Selection of common plastics 85
2.4 Composite materials 85
Chapter 3 Designing Common Standards and Specifications
3.1 Common Standards for Mechanical Drawing 87
3.1.1 Frame format and frame size (GB / T 14689—2008) 87
3.1.2 Title column (GB / T 10609.1-2008) and detail column (GB / T 10609.2-2009) 88
3.1.3 Proportion (GB / T 14690-1993) and line type (GB / T 4457.4-2002) 88
3.1.4 Section symbols (GB / T 4457.5—2013) 89
3.1.5 Number and arrangement of parts and components in assembly drawings (GB / T 4458.2—2003) 90
3.1.6 Size Note (GB / T 4458.4—2003) 91
3.1.7 Prescriptive Drawings for Common Parts
3.1.8 Symbols of mechanism motion diagram (GB / T 4460—2013) 111
3.2 Tolerances and fits 113
3.2.1 Standard and basic deviations
3.2.2 Limit deviation of holes and shafts
3.2.3 General tolerances for linear and angular dimensions without tolerances 168
3.2.4 Priority and common coordination of basic hole system and basic shaft system 168
3.2.5 Conical Tolerances and Fits
3.2.6 Calculation and selection of interference fit
3.3 Geometric Tolerance
3.3.1 Symbols for Geometric Tolerances
3.3.2 Values and Applications of Geometric Tolerances
3.3.3 Geometric Tolerance Grades for Several Major Processing Methods 177
3.3.4 Application of Geometric Tolerances
3.4 Surface Roughness 178
3.4.1 Main parameters of surface roughness 178
3.4.2 Common symbols for surface roughness and their notation
3.4.3 Surface roughness obtained by several main processing methods 182
3.5 Common Heat Treatment Specifications 183
3.5.1 Common heat treatment process code 183
3.5.2 Parts heat drawings should indicate heat treatment requirements 185
3.5.3 Examples of Heat Treatment of Common Parts
3.5.4 Precautions for structural design of heat-treated parts
3.6 Common Welding Process Specifications 193
3.6.1 Welding methods and their applications
3.6.2 Design Principles for Welded Structures
3.6.3 Welding materials and selection
3.6.4 Weldability of Common Metals
3.6.5 Welds
3.6.6 Geometric Dimension Tolerances, Shape and Position Tolerances of Weldments
3.6.7 Welding Quality Inspection 208
3.7 Common Specifications for Machining 209
3.7.1 Standard Size 209
3.7.2 Angled Standard Series 210
3.7.3 Taper and Taper Angle of a Cone
3.7.4 Center hole fit 211
3.7.5 Overtravel slot size 213
3.7.6 Fillet radius and chamfer dimensions of the surface
3.7.7 Rounding and Chamfering of Parts
3.7.8 Gear hob outer diameter, arc keyway milling cutter outer diameter size 216
3.7.9 Undercuts for Gear Processing 216
3.7.10 Straight Tooth Face Milling Cutter Size 217
3.7.11 Knurled 217
Chapter 4 Part Structure Design Processability
4.1 Casting Structure Design Process 218
4.1.1 Performance and Characteristics of Common Castings 218
4.1.2 Minimum wall thickness of casting 219
4.1.3 Thickness of cast outer wall, inner wall and ribs 219
4.1.4 Casting Slope 219
4.1.5 Casting Fillet 220
4.1.6 Casting Fillet 221
4.1.7 Minimum Casting Hole 221
4.1.8 Casting tolerances 221
4.1.9 Wall thickness transition size 222
4.2 Forging structure design and technology 223
4.2.1 Common forging methods and material forming characteristics 223
4.2.2 Fillet radius of fixed die forging on tire die forging and free forging hammer 224
4.2.3 Die forging slope of fixed die forging on tire die forging and free forging hammer 225
4.2.4 Punching and skin size of fixed die forging on tire die forging and free forging hammer 225
4.2.5 Rib aspect ratio of die forging on die forging and free forging hammer 225
4.2.6 Flat steel rolled into a cylindrical end size 226
4.2.7 Round steel hammer flat size 226
4.3 Process Design of Cold Stamping Parts 227
4.3.1 Selection of stamping materials and methods 227
4.3.2 Punching position and minimum punchable size 227
4.3.3 Minimum bending fillet radius 227
4.3.4 The minimum size of the flip hole and its distance from the edge 228
4.3.5 Commonly used minimum blanking fillet radius 228
4.3.6 Punching minimum size 229
4.4 Structural Design Technology of Common Plastic Parts 229
4.4.1 General specifications for the design of plastic parts 229
4.4.2 Dimensional Tolerances of Plastic Parts
5.2 Structural Elements of Threaded Parts
5.2.1 Ordinary thread finishing, shoulder distance, undercut, chamfer 251
5.2.2 Remaining length of internal and external threads of ordinary threads, remaining depth of drilling 252
5.2.3 Dimensions of fastener through-holes and bolts, screw through-holes and countersinks 253
5.2.4 Coarse thread, screwing depth, tapping depth and drilling depth 253
5.2.5 Anchor Bolt Holes and Flange Dimensions
5.2.6 Wrench Space 254
5.3 Commonly used threaded connections 256
5.3.1 Bolts 256
5.3.2 Nuts
5.3.3 Studs 280
5.3.4 Screws
5.3.5 Washer 293
5.3.6 Retaining ring 305
5.4 Design calculations for threaded connections 312
5.4.1 Mechanical performance grades of commonly used materials for threaded connections 312
5.4.2 Types of threaded connections and methods of preventing loosening 314
5.4.3 Stress analysis and strength calculation of bolted connections
Chapter 6. Keys, Splines, Pins, and Interference Connections
6.1 key connection 318
6.1.1 Types, Features, and Applications of Key Connections
6.1.2 Key selection and key strength calculation
6.1.3 Dimensions, Tolerance Fits, and Surface Roughness of Key Connections 320
6.2 Spline Connection 330
6.2.1 Types, Features, and Applications of Spline Connections
6.2.2 Strength calculation of spline connection
6.2.3 Dimensions and tolerance fits of spline connections 331
6.3 Pin Connection 333
6.3.1 Types, Characteristics, and Applications of Pin Connections
6.3.2 Pin Selection and Pin Strength Calculations
6.3.3 Common Standard Pins
6.4 Interference connection 341
6.4.1 Methods, Features and Applications of Interference Connections
6.4.2 Design and Calculation of Interference Connections
Chapter 7 Belt Drive
7.1 Characteristics and Design of Belt Drives 343
7.1.1 Types, Characteristics, and Applications of Belt Drives 343
7.1.2 General Contents of Belt Drive Design
7.2V belt drive 348
7.2.1 Reference and effective width systems 348
7.2.2 Size Specifications
Design of 7.2.3V belt drive 351
7.3 Timing Belt Transmission
7.3.1 Types and Markings of Synchronous Belts
7.3.2 Trapezoid Timing Belt Specifications 361
7.3.3 Performance of Trapezoidal Synchronous Toothed Belts
7.3.4 Design of Synchronous Belt Transmission
Chapter 8 Chain Drive
8.1 Characteristics and Applications of Chain Drives 366
8.2 Roller Chains
8.2.1 Basic parameters and dimensions of roller chains
8.2.2 Design and Calculation of Roller Chain Drives
8.3 Toothed chain 373
8.3.1 Specifications and Sizes of Toothed Chains
8.3.2 Toothed chain drive design calculation 376
8.4 Sprocket 380
8.4.1 Sprocket materials and heat treatment 380
8.4.2 Sprocket Structure
8.4.3 Sprocket Legend 382
8.5 Arrangement, tensioning and lubrication of chain drive 383
8.5.1 Arrangement of chain drive
8.5.2 Tensioning of chain drives
8.5.3 Lubrication Methods for Chain Drives
Chapter 9 Gear Transmission
9.1 Types, Characteristics, and Applications of Gear Transmissions 386
9.2 Involute cylindrical gear transmission 387
9.2.1 Involute cylindrical gear module series 387
9.2.2 Design of Involute Cylindrical Gear Transmission
9.2.3 Gear Materials, Efficiency, and Lubrication
9.2.4 Structure of Cylindrical Gears
9.2.5 Accuracy of Involute Cylindrical Gears
9.2.6 Legend of involute cylindrical gear 416
9.3 Straight Bevel Gear Transmission 418
9.3.1 Modulus series of straight bevel gears 418
9.3.2 Bevel Gear Transmission Design
9.3.3 Structure of Bevel Gears
9.3.4 Accuracy of Bevel Gears 424
9.3.5 Bevel Gear Legend 426
Chapter 10 Worm Gearing
10.1 Basic design of cylindrical worms
10.1.1 Main design parameters of ordinary cylindrical worm drive 429
10.1.2 Calculation of bearing capacity of ordinary cylindrical worm drive 435
10.1.3 Common Materials for Worms and Gears 436
10.2 Cylindrical Worm Transmission Precision Data
10.2.1 Accuracy Grades and Applications of Cylindrical Worm Transmission 437
10.2.2 Inspection requirements for worm gear pairs 438
10.2.3 Tolerances and Limit Deviations 439
10.3 Lubrication and Lubricants
10.4 Legend 444
Chapter 11 Axis
11.1 Common Materials and Properties of Shafts
11.2 Structural Design of the Shaft
11.2.1 Positioning and Fixing of Parts on Shafts
11.2.2 Shaft Processing and Assembly Technology 451
11.2.3 Example of a Typical Structure of a Shaft
11.3 Axis Strength Calculations
11.3.1 Calculation by torsional strength or stiffness 452
11.3.2 Calculating according to the combined strength of bending and torsion
11.3.3 Exact Strength Check Calculations
11.4 Axis Stiffness Calculations
11.5 Legend 457
Chapter 12 Couplings and Clutches
12.1 Couplings 458
12.1.1 Coupling Shaft Holes and Connection Forms 458
12.1.2 Rigid Couplings 461
12.1.3 Flexible Couplings for Nonmetallic Elastic Elements 465
12.1.4 Flexible Couplings with Metal Elastic Elements 467
12.1.5 Safety Couplings
12.2 Clutch 470
12.2.1 Friction clutch 470
12.2.2 Teeth clutch 472
12.2.3 Overtaking clutch 475
12.2.4 Dental clutch 478
12.2.5 Safety Clutches
12.2.6 ALY Hydraulic Safety Clutch 481
Chapter 13 Rolling bearings
13.1 Types, Characteristics, and Applications of Common Rolling Bearings
13.1.1 Types of rolling bearings 483
13.1.2 Code for rolling bearing 484
13.1.3 Type Selection of Common Rolling Bearings
13.2 Calculation of Bearing Capacity of Rolling Bearings
13.2.1 Basic Concepts
13.2.2 Calculation of Rolling Bearing Life
13.3 Combined Design of Rolling Bearings
13.3.1 Bearing installation methods and support structures 491
13.3.2 Tolerances and fits for rolling bearings 492
13.3.3 Lubrication and Sealing of Rolling Bearings
13.4 Main dimensions and performance of commonly used rolling bearings 495
13.4.1 Deep groove ball bearings 495
13.4.2 Angular Contact Ball Bearings 497
13.4.3 Cylindrical Roller Bearings
13.4.4 Tapered roller bearings 501
13.5 Example of Calculation of Rolling Bearing Life 503
Chapter 14 Plain Bearings
14.1 Common Data
14.1.1 Types and Application Features of Plain Bearings 504
14.2 Design of Sliding Bearings
14.2.1 Dynamic Pressure Lubricated Radial Sliding Bearings 506
14.2.2 Calculation Example of Hybrid Lubricated Radial Sliding Bearings
14.2.3 Axial thrust plain bearings 508
14.3 Common Bearing Materials and Performance
14.4 Sliding Bearing Block Structures
14.5 Choice of Lubrication Method and Lubricant
Chapter 15 Spring
15.1 Main Types of Common Springs
15.2 Ordinary Cylindrical Helical Springs
15.2.1 Basic Parameters of Cylindrical Helical Springs
15.2.2 Standard size series of cylindrical coil spring (taken from GB / T 1358-1993) 519
15.2.3 End Structures of Cylindrical Helical Springs
15.3 Common Spring Materials 522
15.3.1 Common Spring Materials and Their Application Features 522
15.3.2 Mechanical Properties of Common Spring Wires 523
15.3.3 Allowable stresses for spring materials 525
15.3.4 Principles for Selecting the Working Wire's Ultimate Stress 526
15.4 Design of Cylindrical Helical Compression (Stretch) Springs
15.4.1 Calculation of Geometric Parameters
15.4.2 Strength Calculations
15.4.3 Calculation of Stiffness and Deformation of Compression (Tension) Springs
15.4.4 Checking the Stability of Compression Springs
15.4.5 Spring Strength Check 529
15.4.6 Spring Vibration Checks
15.5 Design of Cylindrical Helical Torsion Springs
15.5.1 Calculation of Strength of Torsion Springs
15.5.2 Calculation of Deformation and Stiffness of Torsion Springs
15.5.3 Determination of Other Parameters of Torsion Springs
Chapter 16 Lubrication and Sealing
16.1 Lubricants
16.1.1 Grease 532
16.1.2 Lubricant 533
16.1.3 Solid Lubricants
16.1.5 Selection Principles of Lubricants 540
16.2 Lubrication Methods and Lubrication Devices
16.2.1 Common Lubrication Methods of Mechanical Equipment 540
16.2.2 Common Lubrication Devices
16.3 Sealing 544
16.3.1 Common Seal Types
16.3.2 Common Sealing Materials
16.3.3 Common Sealing Devices
Chapter 17 Common Hydraulic Components
17.1 Basic Standards
17.1.1 Nominal pressure series of hydraulic system and common components (GB / T 2346—2003) 559
17.1.2 Nominal displacement series of hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor (GB / T 2347—1980) 559
17.1.3 Hydraulic cylinder inner diameter and piston outer diameter series (GB / T 2348—1993) 560
17.1.4 Hydraulic cylinder piston stroke series (GB / T 2349—1980) 560
17.1.5 Thread connection size of oil port of hydraulic components (GB / T 2878—2011) 561
17.1.6 Nominal Capacity Series of Hydraulic Pump Station Fuel Tank (JB / T 7938—2010) 561
17.1.7 Hard pipe outer diameter and hose outer diameter for hydraulic system (GB / T 2351—2005) 561
17.1.8 Identification of hydraulic valve ports, bottom plates, control devices and solenoids (GB / T 17490-1998) 561
17.2 Forms and Selection of Hydraulic Transmission Systems
17.2.1 Form and Design Steps of a Hydraulic Transmission System
17.2.2 Selection of Hydraulic Parts
17.3 Hydraulic Pumps and Motors 564
17.3.1 Types of hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors
17.3.2 Selection of Hydraulic Pumps and Hydraulic Motors
17.4 Hydraulic Cylinders 568
17.4.1 Classification of Hydraulic Cylinders
17.4.2 Installation of Hydraulic Cylinders
17.4.3 Calculation of Main Technical Parameters of Hydraulic Cylinders
17.4.4 Design and selection of hydraulic cylinder 575
17.5 Control Valve 576
Chapter 18 Reducer
18.1 Introduction to Common Reducers
18.1.1 Types, Features and Applications of Common Reducers
18.1.2 Common Reducer Structures
18.2 Reducer Design Guidelines 586
18.2.1 Overall Design of the Transmission
18.2.2 Design Calculations of Transmission Parts
18.2.3 Design of Assembly Drawings for Reducers
18.2.4 Design of Reducer Assembly Drawings
18.2.5 Design of Part Work Drawings
18.2.6 Writing Design Calculation Instructions
18.2.7 Reducer reference legend 607
18.3 Reducer Design Parameters 618
18.3.1 Standard Center Distance of Cylindrical Gear Reducer 618
18.3.2 Tolerance coordination of main parts of reducer 619
18.3.3 Lubrication and Sealing of Reducers
18.3.4 Reducer accessories 624
Chapter 19 Motor
19.1 Classification and Use of Motors
19.1.1 Classification of Motors
19.1.2 Features and Applications of Common Motors
19.2 Motor Selection
19.2.1 Basic Principles and Methods of Motor Selection
19.2.2 Selection of Motor Type
19.2.3 Selection of Motor Rated Voltage
19.2.4 Selection of Motor Rated Speed 637
19.2.5 Selection of Motor Capacity
19.3 Common Motor Specifications
19.3.1Y series (IP23) protective cage three-phase asynchronous motor 638
19.3.2Y series (IP44) closed cage three-phase asynchronous motor 641
19.3.3YR (IP23) series protective winding type three-phase asynchronous motor 646
19.3.4YR (IP44) three-phase enclosed wound rotor asynchronous motor 647
19.3.5 YCJ series gear reduction asynchronous motor 650
19.3.6 YX series high-efficiency three-phase asynchronous motor 651
19.3.7YH series high slip three-phase asynchronous motor 652
19.3.8 YEJ series electromagnetic brake three-phase asynchronous motor 654
19.3.9 Center Height of Motor Shaft 655
19.3.10 Stepper Motors 655
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