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Concise Handbook of Machining Process

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Concise Handbook of Machining Processes Published: 2016

This manual is a comprehensive reference book combining mechanical cutting processing technology and operation skills. It closely integrates the needs of mechanical manufacturing technology, and collects and selects commonly used materials and data on the field of mechanical manufacturing, mainly including basic knowledge of metal cutting, machining quality and Its inspection, mechanical processing process, machine tool fixture design, turning processing, milling processing, grinding processing, other cutting processing, CNC cutting processing, etc., provide typical application examples for various machining methods. The characteristics of this manual are based on technology, with various machining methods as the main line, starting from process technicians and technical workers who solve practical production problems and serve the production line. Process data and process methods are closely combined. The content is concise, practical, and well-organized for easy reference.
This manual is applicable to craftsmen, senior technicians and technical workers in machinery manufacturing enterprises, and it can also be used as a reference for teachers and students of mechanical majors in colleges and vocational schools.

Chapter 1 Basic Knowledge of Metal CuttingOne
1.1 Basic knowledge of metal cutting 1
1.1.1 Workpiece surface 1
1.1.2 Tool Elements 1
1.1.3 Tool and Workpiece Movement 4
1.1.4 Reference Frame Terms and Definitions 7
1.1.5 Terms and definitions of tool angle and working angle 9
1.1.6 Geometric and Motion Parameters in Cutting 16
1.2 Tool material 20
1.2.1 The properties of tool materials 20
1.2.2 Types and Performance of Tool Materials 21
1.3 Cutting Force and Cutting Power 30
1.3.1 Concept of cutting force and cutting power 30
1.3.2 Calculation of drilling force (torque) and drilling power 37
1.3.3 Calculation of milling cutting force and milling power 39
1.3.4 Selection and correction of coefficients in cutting force empirical formulas during broaching 41
1.3.5 Calculation of grinding force and grinding power 43
1.4 Cutting heat and temperature 45
1.4.1 Generation and Transmission of Cutting Heat 45
1.4.2 Workpiece thermal deformation and calculation of deformation amount 46
1.5 Tool life 51
1.5.1 Tool Wear Patterns
1.5.2 Causes and Processes of Tool Wear
1.5.3 Factors Affecting Tool Life (Durability) 55
1.5.4 The bluntness standards of cutters and a reasonable choice of service life
1.6 Machinability of Workpiece Materials 61
1.6.1 Indexes for measuring the machinability of workpiece materials
1.6.2 Factors Affecting Workability
1.7 Cutting fluid 65
1.7.1 The role of cutting fluids
1.7.2 Types and Selection of Cutting Fluids
1.7.3 Use of Cutting Fluid 69
1.8 Commonly Used Standards, Specifications, and Structural Elements of Machining 70
1.8.1 Standard Size 70
1.8.2 Taper, Taper Angle, and Taper Tolerances
1.8.3 Center Hole
1.8.4 Undercut
1.8.5 Grinding wheel overtravel slot 79
1.8.6T-shaped slot 79
1.8.7 Chamfering and Rounding of Parts
1.9 Blanks and machining allowances 89
1.9.1 The type of workpiece blank and its processing method selection 89
1.9.2 Dimensions, deviations and machining allowances of rolled parts
1.9.3 Castings
Chapter 2 Machining Quality and Inspection 110
2.1 Concept of Machining Precision
Factors affecting dimensional accuracy and improvement measures
2.1.2 Factors affecting shape accuracy and improvement measures 113
2.1.3 Factors affecting location accuracy and improvement measures 115
2.2.Machined Surface Quality
2.2.1 Concept of Surface Processing Quality
2.2.2 Factors Affecting Machining Surface Roughness and Improvement Measures 118
2.2.3 Relationship between Typical Surface Roughness, Processing Precision and Fitting Properties
2.2.4 Work hardening
2.2.5 Residual Stress
2.2.6 Metallographic changes of surface layer materials
2.3 Inspection of machining quality 127
2.3.1 Common Measurement Terms and Methods
2.3.2 Common Measuring Instruments
2.3.3 Thread Measurements
2.3.4 Geometric (shape and position) error measurement 146
2.3.5 Measurement of Surface Roughness
Chapter 3 Machining Processes 157
3.1 Basic knowledge of machining process 157
3.1.1 Basic Terminology of Common Mechanical Manufacturing Processes
3.1.2 The role of mechanical processing procedures 160
3.1.3 Process specification format 161
3.1.4 Craft Code 165
3.2 Technical Analysis of Part Structure 180
3.2.1 Technical requirements for the structure of various processing types of parts 180
3.2.2 Technical Analysis of the Structure of Cutting Parts
3.2.3 Put forward necessary improvement opinions according to the technical requirements of assembly drawings and parts drawings
3.2.4 Evaluation index of part structure technology 190
3.3 Formulation of machining processes
3.3.1 Procedures for the development of machining processes
3.3.2 Selection of positioning reference
3.3.3 Surface processing methods and the processing accuracy achieved 196
3.3.4 Processing Sequence Arrangement of Processes 203
3.4 Process Design 206
3.4.1 Process Drawing 206
3.4.2 Determination of Processing Allowance
3.4.3 Determining process dimensions and tolerances
3.4.4 Selection of Machine Tool, Tooling and Cutting Amount 214
3.5 Machining allowance between processes 216
3.5.1 Factors to be considered in determining the machining allowance between processes 216
3.5.2 Machining allowance of the shaft 217
3.5.3 Machining allowances for slots 221
3.5.4 Machining allowances for holes 221
3.5.5 Plane machining allowance 226
3.5.6 Thread Machining Allowance 228
3.6 Process Dimension Chain 231
3.6.1 Basic Concepts of the Dimension Chain
3.6.2 Calculation of Dimension Chains
3.6.3 Analysis and Calculation of Several Typical Process Size Chains
3.6.4 Process size tracking chart method 241
3.7 Determination of time quota
3.7.1 Time Quota and Its Composition
3.7.2 Calculation of Basic Time
3.7.3 Calculation of Auxiliary Time
3.7.4 Layout of work place, physiological needs, preparation and end time 264
3.8 Examples of Mechanical Processes of Typical Parts 264
3.8.1 Positioning sleeve machining process 264
3.8.23 MZ136 bearing grinding machine spindle machining process 265
3.8.3 Cylindrical gear machining process 284
3.8.4 CA6140 lathe spindle box machining process 292
3.8.5 Connecting rod machining process 300
Chapter 4 Machine Tool Fixture Design 306
4.1 Basic Concepts and Types of Machine Tool Fixtures 306
4.1.1 Basic Concepts
4.1.2 Composition of Fixtures
4.1.3 Types of Machine Tool Fixtures
4.2 Positioning of Workpieces in Fixtures
4.2.1 The concept of workpiece positioning
4.2.2 Basic requirements for positioning elements 316
4.2.3 Positioning methods and positioning elements 316
4.2.4 Positioning Modes and Representation Examples of Typical Workpieces
4.3 Positioning Error Analysis and Calculations
4.3.1 The Concept of Positioning Errors
4.3.2 Analysis and Calculation of Positioning Errors
4.4 Clamping device 346
4.4.1 Overview of clamping devices
4.4.2 Clamping Force Determination
4.4.3 Common Clamping Mechanisms
4.5 Other fixtures
4.5.1 Guides
4.5.2 Knife setting device 370
4.5.3 Fixture attachments 371
4.5.4 Indexing of fixtures and its positioning device
4.6 Combined Fixtures
4.6.1 Features of Combined Fixtures
4.6.2 Components and Functions of Combined Fixtures
4.6.3 Assembly of Assembly Fixtures
4.7 Design Methods of Fixtures
4.7.1 Design Methods, Procedures and Major Issues Considered 390
4.7.2 Fixture Design Examples
Chapter 5 Turning 405
5.1 Lathe 405
5.1.1 Composition and Process Range of Horizontal Lathes 405
5.1.2 Composition, process range and workpiece clamping of vertical lathes 406
5.2 Turning tools 408
5.2.1 Types and Uses of Turning Tools 408
5.2.2 Specifications and dimensions of high-speed steel turning tools 410
5.2.3 Specifications and Sizes of Welded Carbide Turning Tools 411
5.2.4 Types and specifications of indexable inserts for cutting tools 415
5.2.5 Geometric Parameters and Applications of Cutting Face and Angle of Turning Tools 421
5.2.6 Manual sharpening of turning tools 425
5.3 Outside cylindrical surface 427
5.3.1 Workpiece clamping method for external workpiece 427
5.3.2 Selection of Turning Consumption 430
5.4 Turning a conical surface 438
5.4.1 Turning Conical Surface Method and Machine Tool Adjustment 438
5.4.2 Machining Quality and Control of Turning Conical Surfaces 440
5.4.3 Quality Problems and Preventive Methods of Turning Conical Surfaces
5.5 Turning Eccentric Workpieces 442
5.5.1 The clamping method for turning eccentric workpieces
5.5.2 Clamping Method for Turned Crankshaft
5.6 thread 445
5.6.1 Thread turning tools 445
5.6.2 Thread Turning Methods 452
5.6.3 Selection of Cutting Amount for Thread Processing 454
5.6.4 Quality Problems, Causes and Solutions When Turning Threads
5.7 Other surface turning 459
5.7.1 Turned Forming Surfaces
5.7.2 Turned Spherical Surfaces
5.7.3 Common Tools and Applications for Rolling
Chapter 6 Milling 466
6.1 Milling machines and milling process ranges 466
6.1.1 Milling Machines
6.1.2 Milling processing range 468
6.2 Milling cutters 468
6.2.1 Types and uses of milling cutters
6.2.2 Geometric Angle, Diameter, and Selection of Milling Cutter
6.2.3 Installation methods of milling cutters
6.2.4 Specifications of common milling cutters 476
6.3 Milling Amount and Selection 492
6.3.1 Definition and calculation of each element of milling consumption 492
6.3.2 Selection of milling amount
6.4 Milling mode and workpiece clamping mode 499
6.4.1 Milling methods
6.4.2 Clamping Method for Milled Workpieces
6.5 Indexing Head and Its Application 502
6.5.1 Composition of Indexing Head and Simple Use 502
6.5.2 Approximate division of the indexing head 504
6.5.3 Linear distance indexing method
6.5.4 Double Indexing Head Multiple Indexing Method 509
6.5.5 Indexing method of circular table 511
6.6 Milling of planes and bevels 512
6.6.1 Milling plane 512
6.6.2 Milling of bevels
6.6.3 Inspection and Control of Planar Milling Quality 517
6.6.4 Example of Milling a Bevel Part
6.7 Groove milling 519
6.7.1 Milling of right-angle grooves and keyways 519
6.7.2 Milling of Special Grooves
6.7.3 Quality Analysis of Keyway 523
6.8 Milling clutch 524
6.8.1 Types, Features and Process Requirements of Clutches 524
6.8.2 Milling of Rectangular Tooth Clutches 525
6.8.3 Milling of trapezoidal contour tooth clutches
6.8.4 Milling and calculation of tine and trapezoidal shrink tooth clutches
6.8.5 Milling of Helical Gear Clutches
6.8.6 Quality Analysis of Toothed Clutch Milling
6.8.7 Milling Clutch Example 535
6.9 Milling of Constant Speed Cams 538
6.9.1 Elements and Calculations of a Constant Speed Cam
6.9.2 Milling of Constant Speed Disc Cams 540
6.9.3 Example of Milling a Constant Speed Disc Cam
6.10 Spherical Milling 547
6.10.1 Milled spherical surface 547
6.10.2 Quality Analysis of Spherical Machining 551
6.10.3 Example of single-shank outer spherical milling 552
6.11 Tool Cogging Mill 555
6.11.1 Milling tool cogging 555
6.11.2 Example of Milling a Cylindrical Spur Tool
Chapter 7 Grinding 565
7.1 Ordinary abrasive tools 565
7.1.1 Varieties, Codes, Features and Applications of Ordinary Abrasives 565
7.1.2 Ordinary abrasive size 566
7.1.3 Performance and Application of Common Abrasive Tool Bonding Agent Code 568
7.1.4 Hardness Codes and Applications of Grinding Tools 568
7.1.5 Abrasive Tool Organization Number and Its Application 569
7.1.6 Strength of the abrasive tool 570
7.1.7 Shape and Size of Grinding Tools 571
7.1.8 Marking of ordinary abrasive tools
7.2 Superhard Abrasives 575
7.2.1 Types, Codes and Applications of Superhard Abrasives 575
7.2.2 Granularity of Superhard Abrasives 576
7.2.3 Binding Agent for Superhard Abrasives 577
7.2.4 Concentration and hardness of superhard abrasive tools 578
7.2.5 Superhard Abrasive Structure, Shape and Size 579
7.2.6 Marking of super-hard abrasive tools 587
7.3 Cylindrical grinding 588
7.3.1 Cylindrical grinding method 588
7.3.2 Workpiece clamping for cylindrical grinding 590
7.3.3 Cylindrical grinding wheel 598
7.3.4 Selection of cylindrical grinding amount 605
7.3.5 Detection and control of cylindrical grinding 607
7.3.6 Common Quality Problems and Improvement Measures of Grinding Outer 610
7.4 Internal Grinding 614
7.4.1 Internal Grinding Method 614
7.4.2 Internal Grinding Workpiece Clamping 617
7.4.3 Internal Grinding Wheel 621
7.4.4 Grinding Amount for Internal Grinding 624
7.4.5 Internal Grinding Detection Control 630
7.4.6 Common Workpiece Defects in Internal Grinding, Causes and Solutions 632
7.5 Conical surface grinding 633
7.5.1 Names and Calculations of Parts of Conical Surfaces
7.5.2 Grinding methods for conical surfaces
7.5.3 Detection and Control of Conical Surfaces 637
7.5.4 Causes of Defects in Conical Surface Grinding and Elimination Measures 642
7.6 Surface grinding 643
7.6.1 Surface grinding method 643
7.6.2 Workpiece clamping for surface grinding 645
7.6.3 Surface grinding wheel and grinding amount 648
7.6.4 Detection and control of surface grinding 653
7.6.5 Common workpiece defects, causes and solutions in surface grinding 656
7.7 Centerless grinding
7.7.1 Forms and Characteristics of Centerless Grinding
7.7.2 Common methods of centerless grinding
7.7.3 Choice of Centerless Grinding Amount
7.7.4 Adjustment and Control of Centerless Cylindrical Grinding Parameters 666
7.7.5 Common Defects in Centerless Grinding and Elimination Methods 672
7.8 Grinding of the forming surface 675
7.8.1 Grinding Surfaces and Grinding Methods
7.8.2 Dressing wheel dressing methods
7.8.3 Example of Grinding of Circular Guide Rail 679
Chapter 8 Other Machining 682
8.1 Drilling
8.1.1 Drilling machines and processing methods 682
8.1.2 Drilling
8.1.3 Basic Operations of Drilling
8.1.4 Selection of Drilling Elements and Drilling Consumption 687
8.1.5 Deep hole drilling 689
8.1.6 Reaming, countersinking and countersinking 691
8.2 Reaming 693
8.2.1 Reamer Structure and Geometric Parameters 693
8.2.2 Selection of Reaming Amount 694
8.2.3 Causes and Solutions of Common Problems in Reaming
8.3 Boring
8.3.1 Boring Machines
8.3.2 Boring Tool, Boring Bar and Boring Sleeve
8.3.3 Basic Methods of Boring
8.3.4 Boring consumption 715
8.3.5 Factors Affecting Boring Quality and Solutions 721
8.4 Tapping 727
8.4.1 Types and Uses of Taps
8.4.2 How to Determine the Drilling Hole Diameter Before Tapping
8.4.3 Common Problems, Causes and Solutions in Machine Tap Tapping
8.5 Planing 730
8.5.1 Planer and its process scope 730
8.5.2 Planer 733
8.5.3 Common workpiece clamping methods for planing
8.5.4 Planing Methods 737
8.5.5 Amount of planing 742
8.5.6 Reasons and Solutions for Common Problems in Planing
8.6 Cutting Machining 755
8.6.1 Slotting Machine and Process Range 755
8.6.2 Knife Insertion 758
8.6.3 Cutting amount 759
Chapter 9 CNC Machining 761
9.1 CNC machine tools 761
9.1.1 CNC Lathe 761
9.1.2 CNC milling machine 763
9.1.3 Machining Center 765
9.2 CNC cutting process 768
9.2.1 Features of CNC Cutting Process 768
9.2.2 NC Turning Process Specification Formulation Process 769
9.2.3 Analysis process of turning process route formulation for shaft parts
9.2.4 Formulation of CNC Turning Procedures for Shaft Sleeve Parts 773
9.2.5 NC Milling Process Specification Formulation and Example 779
9.2.6 Formulation and Example of NC Machining Process Rules 784
9.3 CNC EDM 791
9.3.1 EDM Process Types, Features and Application 791
9.3.2 CNC EDM Machine 793
9.3.3 EDM Process Flow 793
9.3.4 Analysis Example of EDM Process of Connecting Rod Mould 794
9.4 CNC EDM Wire Cutting 796
9.4.1 Composition of CNC EDM Machine Tool
9.4.2 Process flow of CNC wire cutting
9.4.3 Example of Wire Cutting for Bracket Parts 800
References 803

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