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Numerical simulation technology of heat treatment process

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Heat treatment process numerical simulation technologyPublished time: 2017 edition Brief introduction "Heat treatment process numerical simulation technology" systematically expounds the physical fields such as temperature field, microstructure transformation, mechanical properties, stress / strain field, concentration field during carburizing process, etc. Numerical simulation technology, and verify the results of numerical simulation by corresponding experimental data or analytical data of typical problems, and prove the reliability of numerical simulation technology. Aiming at the interfacial heat transfer problem during the thermal processing of materials, the inverse heat conduction technology based on optimization and numerical simulation technology, and various kinds of interfacial heat transfer coefficient solution technology are systematically introduced. Aiming at the austenitization of the material during the heating process, the austenitizing phase transition kinetic model and the solution methods of various material parameters are systematically introduced, and the numerical simulation of the austenitizing process of the material is realized.
Chapter 1 Overview 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Basic Concepts of Virtual Heat Treatment 2
1.3 Status of domestic and foreign research on quenching process simulation technology 3
1.3.1 Current Status of Simulation Research on Quenching Process 3
1.3.2 Current Status of Simulation Research on Quenching Process in China 3
1.3.3 Domestic and foreign heat treatment software packages 4
1.3.4 Optimization of heat treatment process 6
1.4 Difficulties and Problems in Numerical Simulation of Quenching Process 7

Chapter 2 Temperature Field Simulation Technology of Quenching Process 9
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Partial Differential Equations for Heat Conduction during Quenching 10
2.2.1 Temperature Field Control Equation 10
2.2.2 Initial conditions 10
2.2.3 Boundary Conditions 11
2.3 Variations of the transient temperature field 12
2.3.1 Variations of Planar Transient Temperature Fields 12
2.3.2 Variations of Axisymmetric Transient Temperature Fields
2.4 Solving the Transient Temperature Field 19
2.4.1 Difference Method 19
2.4.2 Storage method of coefficient matrix 20
2.4.3 Numerical Oscillation of Temperature Field 21
2.5 Selection of thermophysical parameters 28
2.6 Block diagram of temperature field calculation flow 28
2.7 Validation of temperature field finite element simulation program 30
2.7.1 One-dimensional steady-state heat conduction problem of constant internal heat with variable thermal conductivity 30
2.7.2 Two-Dimensional Transient Heat Conduction of Internal Heat
Chapter Summary 33

Chapter 3 Phase Transformation Process Simulation Techniques for Quenching Processes 34
3.1 Introduction 34
3.2 TTT curve 35
3.3 Mathematical Model of Phase Transition Process
3.3.1 Diffusion Transitions
3.3.2 Non-diffusive transitions
3.3.3 Calculation of Martensite Transformation Temperature 36
3.3.4 Calculation of Bainite Transformation Temperature 37
3.3.5 Calculation and processing of phase change latent heat 37
3.4 Scheil's Superposition Rule 37
3.5 The Law of Leverage
3.6 Phase transformation plasticity during quenching 40
3.7 Calculation of quenching mechanical properties 41
3.8 Organization Field Simulation Flow Diagram 41
3.9 Simulation and Experimental Study of P20 End Quenching Process 43
3.9.1 Simulation of End Quenching Processes 43
3.9.2 End Quenching Experimental Study
3.9.3 Effect of Latent Heat of Phase Transition on Temperature Field and Tissue Field
Chapter Summary 53

Chapter 4 Collection of Cooling Curves in the Quenching Process and Calculation of the Heat Transfer Coefficient of the Medium 55
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Calculation models and calculation methods
4.2.1 Establishment of Computational Models
4.2.2 Determination of heat transfer coefficient optimization interval 56
4.2.3 Determination of the optimal value of the heat transfer coefficient 58
4.2.4 Analysis of the Golden Section Iteration Number
4.3 Solving Heat Transfer Coefficients
4.4 Experimental setup 65
4.4.1 Experimental Tooling
4.4.2 Thermocouples 66
4.4.3 Thermocouple Conditioning Board 68
4.4.4 Data Acquisition Card
4.5 Collection of cooling curve and calculation of heat transfer coefficient 71
Chapter Summary 76

Chapter 5 Simulation Techniques for Stress / Strain Fields During Quenching 78
5.1.Introduction
5.2 Basic Equations of Mechanics during Quenching 79
5.3 Thermo-elastoplastic constitutive relations
5.3.1 Stress-Strain Relationship in the Elastic Zone
5.3.2 Stress-strain relationships in the plastic region
5.3.3 Calculation of the elastoplastic proportionality factor in the transition zone
5.4 Basic Theory and Technology of Stress / Strain Field Finite Element 86
5.4.1 Element and Shape Functions
5.4.2 Element Strain Rate Matrix
5.4.3 Equivalent strain rate matrix
5.4.4 Boundary Conditions
5.5 Solving Thermoelastoplastic Problems 89
5.5.1 Variational Equations and Stiffness Matrices
5.5.2 Incremental Variable Rigid Matrix Method
5.5.3 Iterative Convergence Criteria
5.6 Calculation of Stress and Strain in Prestressed Quenching 92
5.7 Stress and Strain Calculation Flow Chart
5.8 Inspection of Stress / Strain Calculation Programs
Chapter Summary 98

Chapter 6 Coupling Analysis of Temperature, Phase Transformation and Stress during Quenching 100
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Coupling Analysis Program Flow Diagram
6.3 Coupling Analysis Finite Element Models
6.4 Temperature, Phase Transformation, and Stress-Strain Coupling Analysis
6.4.1 Simulation of Temperature Fields
6.4.2 Organization Field Simulation
6.4.3 Stress / strain field simulation
6.5 The evolution of elastoplastic regions 115
6.6 Deformation of quenched parts
Chapter Summary 119

Chapter 7 Research on Key Technologies of Finite Element Simulation of Carburizing Process 121
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Finite Element Simulation of Carburizing Process
7.2.1 Basic conditions
7.2.2 Variations of Transient Concentration Fields
7.2.3 Finite Difference Method
7.2.4 Numerical Oscillation of Concentration Fields
7.3 Experimental Verification of the Finite Element Simulation Program
7.3.1 Experiments and simulations of cylinders
7.3.2 Gear Experiments and Simulations

Chapter 8 Research on Key Technologies of Organization Simulation Based on MC Method 139
8.1 Key Techniques of MC Potts Model Simulation for Grain Growth 139
8.1.1 Key Techniques of Traditional Grain Growth Models
8.1.2 Improvements to the Exxon MC Potts Model for Traditional Grain Growth
8.1.3 New Model Simulation Computer Algorithm Flow
8.2 Key Techniques for Recrystallization MC Potts New Model Simulation 150
8.2.1 Key Technologies of Traditional Recrystallization Models
8.2.2 New Modeling Process of Recrystallization 151
Chapter Summary 152

Chapter 9 Optimization of Process Parameters for Gas Quenching 153
9.1.Introduction
9.2 Surface Response Model
9.3 Analysis of variance in regression models
9.4 Stepwise Regression Analysis
9.5 Gas Quenching Process and Evaluation of Process Parameters 157
9.5.1 Gas Quenching Techniques
9.5.2 Finite Element Models
9.5.3 Establishment of Objective Function
9.5.4 Evaluation of Process Parameters
9.6.Stepwise Heat Transfer Coefficient Model
9.6.1 Determination of Design Variables
9.6.2 Box-Behnken Experimental Design
9.6.3 Fitting of Response Surfaces
9.6.4 Establishment of Optimization Objective Function
9.6.5 Optimization Results of Process Parameters
9.7 Regional Heat Transfer Coefficient Models
9.7.1 Determination of Design Variables
9.7.2 Central Composite Experimental Design
9.7.3 Fitting of Response Surfaces
9.7.4 Establishment of Optimization Objective Function
9.7.5 Optimization Results of Process Parameters
Chapter Summary 179

References 182

热处理工艺数值模拟技术 Numerical simulation technology of heat treatment process

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