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Practical Handbook of Mold Heat Treatment

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The practical manual of mold heat treatment is published: The 2011 edition Introduction The practical manual of mold heat treatment introduces the heat treatment technology of mold comprehensively and systematically. From the forging process of the mold, the preliminary heat treatment method to the final heat treatment, the detailed descriptions are given. Many factors that affect the service life of the mold are specifically classified and analyzed, and scientific and reasonable technological means and methods are proposed. Combined with the characteristics of heat treatment, combined with specific examples of mold heat treatment, this paper compares and discusses the heat treatment methods of molds, and provides a reference for improving the current heat treatment process and technology level of molds in China. This manual is clear in concept, well illustrated, and practical. It is suitable for heat treatment engineering technicians, mold designers and heat treatment operators. It can also be used as a reference for teachers and students of heat treatment and mold design majors.
Chapter 1 Classification and Material Properties of Moulds 1
1 1 Classification and selection of mold materials 1
1 1 1 Classification of mold materials 1
1 1 2 Performance requirements and selection principles of mold materials 4
1 1 3 Development Trend and Requirements of Die Steel in China 5
1 2 Main mechanical properties of mold materials 6
1 2 1 General mechanical properties of mold materials 6
1 2 2 Special mechanical properties of mold materials 8
1 3 Heat treatment characteristics of common mold materials 10
1 3 1 Cold work die steel 10
1 3 2 Hot work die steel 12
1 3 3 Influence of heat treatment of mold material on mold performance 14
Chapter 2 Influence of Pretreatment Heat Treatment on Mold Quality 16
2 1 Effect of original structure on machining performance 16
2 1 1 Influence of metallurgical quality of mold steel on mold 16
2 1 2 Effect of Microstructure and Hardness on Machinability 17
2 1 3 Effect of original structure on quenching quality 17
2 1 4 Influence of metallurgical quality 18
2 2 Preliminary heat treatment process method 18
2 2 1 annealing 19
2 2 2 Tempering 22
2 2 3 Normalizing and high temperature tempering 25
2 2 4 Impact of Extruded Blank on Die Life and Final Heat Treatment 27
Chapter 3 Heat Treatment Principles and Basic Processes of Iron and Steel Materials 30
3 1 Principles of heat treatment of steel materials 30
3 1 1 Formation process and grain size of austenite 30
Subcooled Austenite Transformation of 3 1 2 Steel and Its Application 33
3 2 Steel Heat Treatment Basic Process 37
3 2 1 Annealing and normalizing of steel 37
3 2 2 Quenching and tempering of steel 40
Surface hardening and tempering of 3 2 3 51
3 2 4 Selection of quenching method and cooling medium for steel 58
3 3 Heat treatment of different types of steel 67
3 3 1 Heat treatment of structural steel 67
3 3 2 Heat treatment of spring steel 69
3 3 3 Heat treatment of bearing steel 71
3 3 4 Heat treatment of tool steels 73
3 3 5 Heat treatment of mold steel 78
3 3 6 Heat treatment of gauge steel 79
3 3 7 heat treatment of cast iron 80
3 4 Heat treatment defect analysis and countermeasures 86
Analysis and countermeasures of 3 4 1 steel annealing and normalizing defects 86
Analysis and countermeasures of quenching and tempering defects of 3 4 2 steel 87
3 5 Straightening method of heat treatment deformation 90
Chapter 4 Heat Treatment Characteristics of Cold Work Die Steels 92
4 1 Cold Work Die Requirements for Die Steel 92
4 1 1 Material selection and heat treatment of cold working molds 92
4 1 2Basic requirements for mold steel for cold work molds 94
4 2 Properties and characteristics of new cold work die steel 96
4 3 Low hardenability cold work die steel 97
4 4 Low deformation cold work die steel (low alloy cold work die steel) 117
4 5 High wear-resistant micro-deformation cold work die steel 122
4 6 High-strength and high wear-resistant cold work die steel (high-speed steel)
4 7 impact resistant cold work die steel 146
4 8 High strength and toughness cold work die steel 152
4 9 High wear resistance and high toughness cold work die steel 173
4 10 Special-purpose cold work die steel 176
Chapter 5 Cold Work Die Heat Treatment 185
5 1 Basic Heat Treatment Process for Cold Work Dies 185
5 1 1 Essentials of heat treatment for cold work molds 185
5 1 2 Main heat treatment process of cold work mold 185
5 2 Heat Treatment of Punching Dies 187
5 2 1 The working process and characteristics of cold die 187
5 2 2 Service life and failure mode of punching die 188
5 2 3 Heat Treatment Features of Punching Dies 189
5 2 4 Heat Treatment Practices 195
5 3 Heat treatment of cold shear blades 202
5 3 1 Working Conditions and Features of Cold Shear Blades 202
5 3 2Selection and hardness of steel for cold cutting blade 202
5 3 3 Heat treatment process characteristics of cold shear blades 203
5 3 4 Heat Treatment Practices 206
5 4 Heat treatment of cold extrusion die 207
5 41 Working conditions and requirements for cold extrusion 207
5 4 2 Mold failure form and cause 209
5 4 3 Performance and selection of cold extrusion die material 210
5 4 4 Heat treatment characteristics of cold extrusion die 211
5 4 5 Die Heat Treatment Practices 212
5 4 6 Analysis of Defects and Failure Causes of Cold Extrusion Parts and Cold Extrusion Dies 217
5 5Heat treatment of cold drawn (deep) molds 224
5 5 1 Working Conditions and Failure Forms of Drawing Dies 224
5 5 2 Drawing die life 225
5 5 3 Selection of materials and heat treatment characteristics 226
5 5 4 Die heat treatment practice 228
5 6 Heat treatment of cold heading 228
5 6 1 Working conditions and mold composition 228
5 6 2 Failure Forms and Technical Requirements of Cold Heading Dies 229
5 6 3 Material selection and heat treatment characteristics of cold heading 229
5 6 4Heat treatment practice of cold heading 231
5 7 Typical Examples of Heat Treatment of Cold Work Dies 235
5 7 1 Heat treatment of electric motor silicon steel sheet cold punching die 235
Low temperature martensite strengthening and tempering of 5 7 2CrWMn steel small watch stamping die
5 7 3W9Mo3Cr4V steel 6105Q 20 tappet cold extrusion die heat treatment 239
5 7 4 bearing roller cold heading die heat treatment 242
5 7 5Heat treatment of thread pressing die 244
Chapter 6 Hot Work Die Steel and Its Heat Treatment 255
6 1 Performance requirements of hot work die steel 255
6 1 1 Classification of hot work die steel 255
6 1 2 Performance requirements for hot work molds 256
6 1 3 Selection and Application of Hot Work Die Steel 258
6 2 Heat treatment characteristics of hot work die steel 262
6 2 1 Low alloy, high toughness hot work die steel (steel for hot forging die) 262
6 2 2 Medium alloy, high toughness hot work die steel (steel for hot extrusion die) 271
6 2 3 High heat-resistant, medium-toughness steel (steel for die-casting molds, etc.) 287
6 2 4 High wear-resistant, high carbon die steel (steel for hot stamping die) 296
6 2 5 Special-purpose hot work die steel 296
6 3 Heat treatment process of hot work mold 303
6 3-1 General heat treatment process of hot work die steel 304
6 3 2 Vacuum heat treatment process parameters of hot work mold 304
6 3 3 Vacuum cooling methods and characteristics of mold 307
6 4 Heat treatment of hot extrusion die 308
6 4 1 Working Conditions and Technical Requirements of Hot Extrusion Dies 308
6 4 2 Failure Form of Hot Extrusion Die 309
6 4 3 Choice of mold steel 310
6.4 4 Heat treatment of hot extrusion die 311
6 4 5 Improve heat treatment process and increase the service life of hot extrusion 315
6 4 6 Technical requirements and defect analysis of extruded metal blanks 318
6 4 7 Application Examples of Heat Treatment Process for Extrusion Dies 327
6 5 Heat treatment of die-casting molds 332
6 5 1 Working conditions and performance requirements of die-casting molds 332
6 5 2 Selection of die casting mold material 333
6 5 3 Heat treatment process of die-casting mold 334
6 5 4 Ways to improve the service life of die casting 340
6 5 5Heat treatment of zinc alloy, die-cast copper alloy, aluminum, magnesium alloy die-casting molds 341
6 6 Heat treatment of hot forging dies 344
6 6 1 Working conditions and technical requirements 344
6 6 2 Features of Hot Forging Die Material 345
6 6 3 Heat Treatment of Hot Forging Dies 345
6 6 4 Ways to Improve the Service Life of Hot Forging Dies 351
6 7 Heat Treatment of Hot Hammer Forging Dies 353
6 7 1 Working conditions of hot hammer forging dies 353
6 7 2 Selection of Hot Hammer Forging Die Material and Die Failure Form 353
6 7 3 Use and Maintenance of Hammer Forging Dies 357
6 7 4 Ways to Prolong the Service Life of Forging Dies and Corresponding Heat Treatment Processes 358
6 8 Heat treatment of high speed hammer forging 359
6 8 1 Working conditions and technical requirements 359
6 8 2 Choice of mold steel 359
Heat treatment of 6 8 3 high speed hammer forging 359
6 9 Heat treatment of hot stamping dies 361
6 9 1 Working conditions and failure modes 361
6 9 2 Mould material selection 361
6 9 3 Heat treatment of hot die 362
6 10 Heat treatment of hot cutting mold and hot rivet mold 364
6 10 1 Working conditions and failure modes 364
6 10 2 Choice of mold materials 365
6 10 3 Heat treatment of molds 365
6 11 Typical Examples of Heat Treatment of Hot Working Moulds 367
6 11 1 Aluminum die-casting mold 367
6 11 2 Hot extrusion die 372
6 11 3 Valve hot extrusion (forging) die 373
6 11 4 Heat treatment of valve hot extrusion die 378
6 11 5 Hammer Forging Die 379
Medium temperature quenching of 6 11 6Cr12MoV steel cutting dies 384
Chapter 7 Plastic Mold Steel and Its Heat Treatment 385
7 1 Plastic mold performance requirements for mold steel 385
7 1 1 Classification of Plastic Moulds 385
7 1 2 Working conditions for plastic molds 385
7 1 3 Forms of failure of plastic molds 386
7 1 4 Performance requirements for plastic mold materials 388
7 2 Heat treatment characteristics of plastic mold steel 389
7 3 Selection of plastic mold steel 390
7 3 1Composition and performance characteristics of steel for plastic molds 392
7 3 2 Selection Principle, Performance and Application Characteristics of Steel for Plastic Moulds 417
7 4 Heat treatment process specifications for plastic molds 420
7 4 1 Technical requirements for heat treatment of plastic mold materials 420
7 4 2 Plastic mold processing flow 422
7 4 3 Heat treatment characteristics of plastic mold 422
7 4 4 Cooling system for plastic molds 426
7 5 Surface treatment technology for plastic molds 427
7 6 Examples of heat treatment of plastic molds 427
7 6 15CrNiMnMoVSCa (5NiSCa) steel heat treatment of precision sealed rubber mold and precision thermoplastic mold 427
7 6 2Y55CrNiMnMoVS (SM1), Y2CrNi3Al MnMoS (SM2) steel plastic mold heat treatment 429
7 6 3SMRI Type 86 cast iron glass mold heat treatment 430
7 6 48Cr2MnWMoVS (8Cr2S) steel printed circuit board die 430
7 6 512CrNi3A steel heat-resistant bakelite mould 431
7 6 6CrWMn steel mold sleeve hot bath quenching 432
7 6 7 Heat treatment of PMS steel tape inner box 432
7 6 8 Heat treatment of powder ceramic punch 433
7 6 9 Coil frame plastic die casting mold 434
Chapter 8 Heat Treatment of Mold Materials such as Cast Steel, Cast Iron, and Carbide
8 1 Cast steel mold materials and heat treatment 436
8 2 Cast iron mold materials and heat treatment 439
8 2 1 Properties and heat treatment of gray cast iron 439
8 2 2 Properties and heat treatment of ductile cast iron 440
8 2 3 Properties and heat treatment of vermicular graphite iron 441
Performance and heat treatment of 8 2 4 alloy cast iron 442
8 3 Heat treatment of cemented carbide and steel cemented carbide for molds 444
8 3 1 Heat treatment of cemented carbide 444
8 3 2 Heat treatment of steel bonded cemented carbide 446
8 4 Non-ferrous metals and alloy mold materials and heat treatment 449
Chapter 9 Mold Surface Treatment Techniques
9 1 Overview 453
9 1 1 Type of surface strengthening treatment 453
9 1 2 The role or purpose of surface strengthening treatment 455
9 2 Chemical heat treatment technology of mold surface 455
9 2 1 Carburizing 455
9 2 2 Nitriding 457
9 2 3 Carbonitriding and nitrocarburizing 459
9 2 4 Boronizing and metalizing 462
9 2 5 Black (blue), Phosphate and Steam Treatment 465
9 3 Coating technology of mold surface 471
9 3 1 Plating 471
9 3 2 Plating Brush 471
9 3 3 Electroless plating 473
9 3 4 Hot Dip 474
9 4 Vapor Deposition Technology on Mold Surface 474
9 4 1 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Process 475
9 4 2 Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Process 478
9 5 Other surface treatment techniques 480
9 5 1 Thermal spray (surfacing) 480
9 5 2 Laser Surface Alloying 482
9 5 3 Ion implantation 482
9 5 4 EDM surface strengthening 483
9 5 5 Surface Enhancement of Electron Beams 484
9 5 6 Shot Peening Surface Strengthening 484
Chapter 10 Measures and Methods to Prevent Early Die Failure 486
10 1 Overview 486
10 2 Influence of Rationality of Mold Structure Design 486
10 2 1 Mold structure 486
10 2 2 Working clearance of mold 489
10 2 3 Structural rigidity of mold 489
10 2 4 Reduce the working load of the mold 490
10 2 5 The main points of the structure of hot work mold 491
10 3 Precautions for mold design, manufacturing, and heat treatment 491
10 3 1 Mold design and manufacturing process 491
10 3 2 Precautions for mold heat treatment 496
10 4 Conditions for correct use and maintenance during mold service 497
10 5 Ways and methods to improve mold service life 501
10 5 1 Mold material and toughening measures 501
10 5 2 Ways and means to improve mold service life 513
10 5 3 Measures and methods to improve mold life 515
Chapter 11 Defect Analysis and Countermeasures of Die Heat Treatment 520
11 1 Forms and causes of mold failure 520
11 2 Types and Characteristics of Defects in Die Heat Treatment 520
11 3 Causes and countermeasures of defects in general mold heat treatment 523
11 3 1 soft point 523
11 3 2 Quenching cracks 523
11 3 3 Organization failure 524
11 3 4 Hardness failed 525
11 3 5 Surface oxidation and decarburization 526
11 3 6 Surface corrosion 527
11 3 7 deformation or distortion 527
11 3 8 Overheating and Overheating 530
11 4 Basic measures to reduce mold heat treatment defects 531
11 5 Common Surface Treatment Technology Defects and Countermeasures 532
11 5 1 Carburizing defect analysis and countermeasures 532
11 5 2 Nitriding defect analysis and countermeasures 534
11 5 3 Analysis and countermeasures of nitrogen and carbonitriding defects 536
Chapter 12 Development and Application of New Die Heat Treatment Technology 542
12 1 Overview 542
12 2 Vacuum heat treatment 542
12 2 1 Development and Characteristics of Vacuum Heat Treatment 542
12 2 2 Development Trend of Vacuum Heat Treatment Technology 544
12 3 Deformation heat treatment 544
12 3 1 Types and characteristics of deformation heat treatment 545
12 3 2 Deformation Heat Treatment Process and Application 548
12 4 Laser Heat Treatment 549
12 5 electron beam surface heat treatment 551
Chapter 13 Quality Control and Inspection of Die Heat Treatment 553
13 1 Overview 553
13 1 1 Method for analyzing the quality of mold heat treatment 553
13 1 2 Control methods and methods for mold heat treatment quality 553
13 2 Heat treatment heating process and heating medium 554
13 3 Oxidative decarburization of mold during heating and its control method 555
13 3 1 Principles of oxidation 556
13 3 2 Principles of decarbonization 556
13 3 3 Methods to prevent or reduce oxidation and decarbonization 557
13 4 Deformation and cracking quality defects in heat treatment 558
13 4 1 Heat treatment deformation and cracking 558
13 4 2 Mold structure and mechanical properties failed
13 4 3 Improve the process to reduce the occurrence of mold heat treatment defects 575
13 5 Forms and Characteristics of Bad Structure in Part Steel 576
13 6 Heat treatment quality inspection of mold steel 582
13 7 Quality testing equipment and instruments for mold heat treatment 589
13 7 1 Non-destructive flaw detection equipment 589
13 7 2 Hardness testing equipment 590
13 7 3 Tensile strength testing equipment 596
13 7 4 Other testing equipment 596
Appendix A Mold Steel Grades, Codes and Properties 597
Schedule 1 Comparison of domestic and foreign grades of common mold steels 597
Attached Table 2 Codes and performance characteristics of common (developed new) mold steels
Performance characteristics and main uses of some common alloy tool steels in Schedule 3
Appendix B. Heat Treatment Process Parameters for Die Steel 605
Schedule 4 Specifications for Annealing, Normalizing, and Solution Treatment of Common Plastic Mold Steels 605
Schedule 5 Hardening heating temperature, cooling method and quenching hardness of mold steel 606
Schedule 6 Common Cooling Methods, Codes and Applications of Die Steel 607
Table 7 Relationship between tempering specifications and hardness of common mold steels 608
Schedule 8 Heat Treatment Process Specification for Common Carbon Tool Steel 609
Schedule 9 quenching and cooling method of carbon tool steel 609
Schedule 10 Specification for Heat Treatment Process of Common Alloy Tool Steel 609
Schedule 11 Specification for Heat Treatment Process of High Speed Steel Mould 610
Schedule 12 Partial Hot Working Die Steel Tempering Process Specification 611
Schedule 13 Relationship between Tempering Temperature and Hardness of Common Cold Work Die Steels 611
Schedule 14 Conventional Heating Coefficient of Cold Work Die Steel 612
Schedule 15 Specification for gas nitriding and gas nitrocarburizing of common mold steels 612
Schedule 16 Isothermal Quenching of Bainite for Common Steel 612
Appendix C Hardness and Strength, Performance 613
Schedule 17 Metal Brinell Hardness (HBW / S) Value 613
Schedule 18 Comparison of Diagonal Length of Indentation and Vickers Hardness Value (HV10) 614
Attached Table 19 Conversion of hardness and strength of various steels (GB / T 1172-1999) 618
Schedule 20 Conversion of Hardness and Strength of Low Carbon Steel 620
Appendix D Other 622
Attached Table 21 Method for marking various heat treatment process codes and technical conditions 622
Schedule 22 Common Symbols and Meanings of Metal Hot Working 623
References 624

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