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Core Manual Die Roll

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Core Manual of Die and Mold Design Practical ManualPublishing time: 2016 edition Editing items: Introduction to Stamping Die Design and Practical Manual In the process of stamping die design, the design standards, principles, steps and methods of core die in stamping die are systematically introduced, and a large number of advanced and practical, comprehensive and reliable structural examples are listed. The main contents include the design basis and design steps of stamping dies, materials for stamping dies, stamping parts design and stamping processability; the design principles of stamping dies, bending dies, deep drawing dies, forming dies, which are widely used in stamping die structures, Methods and points. For different types of dies, each chapter introduces a typical new structure, and some legends are published for the first time. This manual can help engineering technicians who are engaged in stamping die design, and it can also be consulted by teachers and students of related majors in universities.
Chapter 1 Basics and Design Steps of Die Design
1.1 Stamping Production and Die 1
1.1.1 Basic principles of stamping and die 1
1.1.2 The status of stamping in industrial production 1
1.1.3 Features of Stamping 3
Classification of 1.1.4 die 3
1.1.5 Classification, characteristics and die of stamping process 3
1.2 Die terminology 9
1.3 Die Design Steps 15
1.3.1 Information for Die Design 15
1.3.2 Basic requirements for die design 15
1.3.3 General steps for die design 15
1.4 Selection of die structure form 17
1.4.1 Selection according to the production batch of the product 17
1.4.2 Select according to the precision requirements of the product 18
1.4.3 Selection based on the shape and complexity of the product 19
1.4.4 Selection based on the existing equipment of the production department 19
1.4.5 Choose according to the service life that the die can reach 19
1.4.6 Selection based on mold manufacturing capabilities 20
1.4.7 Selection and Comparison of Different Types of Dies 20
1.5 Determination of the pressure center 23
1.5.1 Purpose of Determining the Pressure Center 23
1.5.2 Method of Determining the Pressure Center 24
1.6 Selection of stamping equipment 25
1.6.1 Classification and Model of Presses 25
1.6.2 Uses of various stamping equipment 27
1.6.3 Meaning and Requirements of Main Technical Parameters of Common Presses 28
1.6.4 Selection of stamping equipment 30
1.7 Design of the Die Diagram 34
1.7.1 The role and importance of mold drawings 34
1.7.2 Drawing Requirements and Standards for Die Patterns 34
1.7.3 Drawing and Requirements of Die Assembly Drawings 41
1.7.4 Drawing and Requirements of Die Part Drawings 49
1.7.5 Checking the Die Chart 66
1.8 Several practical methods of die design and the overall size of the die 68
1.8.1 Practical Method of Die Design 68
1.8.2 Overall dimensions of stamping dies 70
Chapter 2 Materials for Stamping Dies
2.1 Basic requirements and selection principles of stamping die materials 71
2.1.1 Basic requirements for stamping die materials 71
2.1.2 Selection Principles of Stamping Die Materials 73
2.2 Classification of stamping die steel, common steel grades and application characteristics 74
2.2.1 Classification of Cold Work Die Steels 74
2.2.2 Common cold work die steel and cemented carbide 75
2.2.3 Common non-national standard grades (domestic and imported) cold working die steel 82
2.3 Chemical Composition and Main Uses of Common Mold Steels 84
2.3.1 Chemical composition and main uses of commonly used mold steel 84
2.3.2 Chemical composition of steel cemented carbide and cemented carbide commonly used in molds
2.4 Cemented Carbide 86
2.4.1 Classification of Carbide
2.4.2 Performance and Application of Carbide for Molds 87
2.4.3 Comparison of the Application of Cemented Carbide and Steel Mold 87
2.5 steel cemented carbide 88
2.5.1 Basic types and properties of steel-bonded cemented carbides 88
2.5.2 Hot working and heat treatment of steel-bonded cemented carbides
2.5.3 Performance and Application of Common Steel Bonded Cemented Carbide for Cold Work Dies
2.6 Powder metallurgy high speed steel and high alloy steel 91
2.7 Selection and hardness requirements of die part materials 92
2.7.1 Basis for Material Selection of Die Working Parts 92
2.7.2 Instructive Selection of Common Materials and Hardness of Die Working Parts
2.7.3 Material and hardness selection of die structure parts 98
2.8 Mold material and service life 99
2.8.1 Mould Life
2.8.2 Basis for judging mold life
2.8.3 Factors Affecting Tool Edge Wear 101
2.8.4 Purpose and Application Scope of Common Heat Treatment Process for Mold Parts
2.8.5 Measures to Improve the Service Life of Molds
2.8.6 Common machining methods of molds and achievable machining accuracy and surface roughness 104
2.9 Comparison Table of Domestic and Foreign Grades of Common Steel
Chapter 3 Stamping Design and Stamping Technology
3.1 Pressability and stamping design principles 109
3.1.1 Processability of stamping parts 109
3.1.2 Design Principles of Stamping Parts 109
3.2 Accuracy, Surface Roughness, and Burrs of Blanking Parts 110
3.2.1 Accuracy of blanking parts
3.2.2 Dimension Tolerance of Blanking Parts
3.2.3 Mass of punched section 115
3.2.4 Surface roughness of the cut surface of the blanking part 116
3.2.5 Dimensional accuracy of precision blanking parts 116
3.2.6 Allowable burr height of metal blanking parts 117
3.3 Craftability of blanking parts 117
3.3.1 Shape requirements of blanking parts (blank parts and punching parts) 117
3.3.2 Dimensional requirements for punching parts 119
3.4 Accuracy and Processability of Bent Parts 120
3.4.1 Accuracy of Bent Parts
3.4.2 Bending fillet radius and minimum bending radius Rmin123
3.4.3 Processability of Bend Parts and Structural Points of Bend Parts 123
3.5 Deep drawing precision and workability 129
3.5.1 Precision of Drawn Parts
3.5.2 Drawing conditions for deep drawing once
3.5.3 Processability of Drawn Parts and Structural Points of Drawn Parts 132
3.5.4 Continuous Deep Drawing Process Conditions for Small Parts
3.6 Flanging Technology 138
3.6.1 Classification and Application of Flanging Technology
3.6.2 Technology of Round Hole Flanging
3.6.3 Non-round hole flanging and processability 143
3.6.4 Thinning and Flanging
3.7 Processability of crimping and pressing 145
3.7.1 Beading Technology 145
3.7.2 Processability of the Embossed Hull
3.8 Cold Extrusion Parts Precision and Technology 148
3.8.1 Dimensional accuracy of cold extruded parts
3.8.2 Reasonable Shape and Size of Cold Extruded Parts
3.9 Standardization Recommendations for Stamping Parts Tolerance Methods 152
3.10 Dimensions, angular tolerances, shapes and positions of stamped parts are not noted tolerances (GB / T 13914,
13915, 13916—2002), the limit deviation of dimensions without tolerances (GB / T 15055—1994), etc. 154
Chapter 4 Punching Die
4.1 Blanking and Blanking Process Analysis 161
4.1.1 Punching and punching die 161
4.1.2 Analysis of Blanking Deformation Process 161
4.1.3 Punching Section Features
4.1.4 Quality Analysis of Punching Parts
4.2 Blanking clearance and selection 165
4.2.1 Meaning of Blanking Clearance
4.2.2 Impact of Gap Size on Punching
4.2.3 Principles for determining the direction of the punching gap 170
4.2.4 Methods of Determining Reasonable Blanking Clearances
4.2.5 Classification of Blanking Clearances
4.2.6 Several common punching clearance values
4.2.7 Basis and Principles for Selecting Blanking Clearance 178
4.3 Determination of Cutting Edge Dimensions and Manufacturing Tolerances for Punching Dies and Dies 179
4.3.1 Principles for Determining the Cutting Edge Size of Punching Punch and Die
4.3.2 Cutting edge size calculation when punching convex and concave die separately
4.3.3 Cutting edge size calculation when punching convex and concave die
4.3.4 Example of Calculating Cutting Edge Size of Punching Die and Die
4.3.5 Comparison of the Features and Applications of Separation of Male and Female Dies and Cooperative Machining
4.4 Punching force, unloading force, pushing force, ejection force 185
4.4.1 Punching Force Calculation
4.4.2 Methods of reducing punching force
4.4.3 Calculation of unloading force, thrust force and ejection force
4.4.4 Calculation method of total pressure when using a press 189
4.4.5 Significance of calculating blanking work and checking calculation of blanking work 190
4.5 Layout, Overlap, Material Width and Material Utilization 191
4.5.1 Layout
4.5.2 Material Consumption and Material Utilization 195
4.5.3 Overlap and Determination of Overlap Value 199
4.5.4 Determination of Article (Belt) Material Width 201
4.5.5 Punching and Layout Example Analysis and Material Utilization Calculation 203
4.5.6 Drawing and Legend of Layout Chart 205
4.6 Classification, Function and Use Examples of Die Parts 211
4.6.1 Classification and Function of Die Parts
4.6.2 Examples of Use of Various Die Parts
4.7 Punch Design Structure 219
4.7.1 Types of Punches and Standard Structures
4.7.2 Common Punch Forms and Fixing Methods 219
4.7.3 Anti-rotation of the punch 245
4.7.4 Example of Punch Fixing for Progressive Dies 245
4.7.5 Determination of the length of the punch (including the length of the multiple punches for the multi-stage progressive die)
4.7.6 Strength check of the punch 249
4.8 Die Structure Design 251
4.8.1 Basic Types and Applications of Dies
4.8.2 Common Structure of Die
4.8.3 Die cutting edge form 275
4.8.4 Determination of Die Dimensions
4.8.5 Calculation of Die Strength
4.8.6 Size and Pitch of Fixed Screw Holes and Dowel Pin Holes of Die
4.8.7 Screw depth and cylindrical pin fit length 281
4.8.8 Machining Precision and Interchangeability of Punch and Die
4.9 Typical Structure of Punching Die
4.9.1 Classification of Punching Dies
4.9.2 Blanking Die
4.9.3 Punching Die 288
4.9.4 Corner Cut Dies
4.9.5 Notch Dies 309
4.9.6 Grooving die 314
4.9.7 tongue cutter 316
4.9.8 Cutting Dies
4.9.9 Trimming Dies 318
4.9.10 Cutting die 332
Chapter 5 Bending Dies
5.1 Bending Deformation of Sheets 342
5.1.1 Bending Methods
5.1.2 Bending Deformation Process and Characteristics
5.2 Minimum bending radius (rmin) 344
5.2.1 Bending and minimum bending radius (rmin) 344
5.2.2 Factors Affecting the Minimum Bending Radius
5.2.3 Determination of the minimum bending radius
5.3 Rebound and prevention 346
5.3.1 Bounce and Rebound of Bent Parts 346
5.3.2 Factors affecting rebound
5.3.3 Determination of rebound value
5.3.4 Measures to reduce rebound
5.4 Calculation of the unfolded dimensions of a bent part
5.4.1 Determination of the position of the neutral layer of the bend 357
5.4.2 Calculation of the unfolded length of a bent piece
5.5 Bending Force, Top Force, and Press Force 362
5.5.1 Calculation of Bending Force
5.5.2 Calculation of Top Force and Press Force
5.5.3 Selection of Nominal Pressure of Bending Equipment
5.6 Bending Die Working Part Dimension Design 364
5.6.1 Male and female die fillet radius 364
5.6.2 Working Depth of the Die 364
5.6.3 Determination of the Length and Width of the Die for U-shaped Bends
5.6.4 Clearance Between Bend Punch and Die
5.6.5 Determination of Dimensions and Manufacturing Tolerances of Bending Convex and Die Working Parts
5.6.6 Bent or Formed Dies Have Different Dimensions 367
5.7 Structural Design of Bending Dies 368
5.7.1 Essentials of Bending Die Structure Design 368
5.7.2 Process Arrangement for Bent Parts
5.8 Typical Structure of Bending Die
5.8.1 V-shaped part bending die 372
5.8.2 L-shaped bending die 376
5.8.3 U-shaped part bending die 377
5.8.4 Shaped Bending Dies 378
5.8.5 Z-shaped piece bending die 380
5.8.6 Bending Dies for Round and Snap Ring Parts
5.8.7 Hinge Hemming Dies 387
5.8.8 Other Bending Moulds
5.9 Causes and Elimination of Defects or Scraps in Bent Parts 407
Chapter 6 Deep Drawing
6.1 Classification of Deep Drawing Parts and Deep Drawing Deformation Analysis of Sheets 409
6.1.1 Deep drawing method and deep drawing classification 409
6.1.2 Deep-deformation process characteristics of cylindrical parts 410
6.1.3 State of stress and strain of the blank during deep drawing of the cylindrical part 411
6.1.4 Wrinkling, Thickness Changes and Hardening Phenomenon When Drawing
6.1.5 Deep deformation characteristics of box-shaped pieces 415
6.2 Determining the shape of the blank and drawing the blank size 417
6.2.1 Principles and Methods for Determining the Shape of Drawn Parts 417
6.2.2 Cutting Edge Allowance for Deep Drawing 417
6.2.3 Basic calculation method for blank size of drawn parts
6.2.4 Calculation method of blank size of deep-drawn parts of rotating body 419
6.2.5 Calculation Method of Rectangle Box Shape Blank 432
6.3 Deep Drawing Process Calculations 438
6.3.1 Drawing coefficient and reasonable selection 438
6.3.2 Deep drawing times of flangeless cylindrical parts 443
6.3.3 Calculation of process dimensions of flangeless cylindrical parts
6.3.4 Calculation of Process Size of Flange Cylindrical Parts
6.3.5 Calculation of Rectangular Processes
6.4 Thinning and Deep Drawing 472
6.4.1 Application, Methods and Features of Thinning and Deep Drawing
6.4.2 Process Calculations for Thinning and Deep Drawing
6.4.3 Die Design for Thinning and Deep Drawing
6.4.4 Example of Thinning and Deep Drawing Process Calculation 476
6.4.5 Causes of Scrap Due to Thinning and Deep Drawing
6.5 Reverse Deep Drawing 478
6.5.1 Reverse Deep Drawing Method and Application 478
6.5.2 Reverse Deep Drawing Features 478
6.6 Deep drawing of stepped, conical, spherical and parabolic pieces 480
6.6.1 Deep drawing of stepped pieces 480
6.6.2 Deep Drawing of Conical Parts
6.6.3 Deep drawing of hemispherical parts 488
6.6.4 Drawing of Parabolic Shapes 494
6.7 Calculation of drawing and blanking forces 495
6.7.1 Deep drawing force 495
6.7.2 Blank Holder Force 497
6.7.3 Determination of the nominal pressure of the press 502
6.7.4 Calculation of Deep Drawing Work 503
6.7.5 Drawing speed 503
6.8 Design of Working Parts for Deep Drawing Punch and Die
6.8.1 Deep drawing of convex and concave die structure forms and air holes of convex die 504
6.8.2 Deep drawing convex and concave die fillet radius 506
6.8.3 Deepening the gap between convex and concave dies 507
6.8.4 Calculation of Drawing Dimensions of Convex and Die Working Parts
6.9 Deep-drawn lubrication, annealing and pickling 510
6.9.1 Lubrication 510
6.9.2 Annealing 512
6.9.3 Pickling 514
6.9.4 Application of Related Processes in Deep Drawing Process 514
6.10 Drawing Die Structures 514
6.10.1 Types of drawing die 514
6.10.2 Design Points for Drawing Dies 515
6.10.3 Typical Structure of Drawing Die 518
6.11 Quality Analysis of Drawn Parts
6.11.1 Forms, Causes and Solutions of Common Defects or Scraps in Deep Drawing
6.11.2 Quality analysis of small and medium-sized drawn parts 538
Chapter 7 Forming Die
7.1 Undulation
7.1.1 Basic Principles, Features, Applications and Deformation Limits of Undulation 540
7.1.2 Compression ribs 541
7.1.3 Embossing (embossing, embossing, dimple) 541
7.1.4 Beaming, Pressing, and Blind Forming Mold Structure 542
7.2 Flanging and Flanging 550
7.2.1 Round hole flange (turn hole) 550
7.2.2 Thinning and Flanging of Small Threaded Bottom Holes 555
7.2.3 Flanged Edges
7.3 Bulge 563
7.3.1 Kinds and Characteristics of Bulge 563
7.3.2 Flanging Die Structure
7.3.3 Cylindrical hollow blank bulging methods and characteristics 567
7.3.4 Calculation of hollow blank bulging process 567
7.3.5 Bulging Die Structure 571
7.4 necking 584
7.4.1 Neck Deformation Characteristics and Deformation Level 584
7.4.2 Calculation of Neck Process
7.4.3 Neck Method
7.4.4 Neck mold structure 588
7.5 Flare 591
7.5.1 Flared deformation characteristics and degree of deformation 591
7.5.2 Flare Form Calculation 592
7.5.3 Flared die structure 593
7.6 Leveling and Shaping
7.6.1 Functions and Features of Leveling and Shaping
7.6.2 Leveling, Classification and Application of Leveling Moulds 597
7.6.3 Shaping Features and Applications 599
7.6.4 Calculation of leveling and shaping forces 601
7.6.5 Shaping and leveling die structures 601
Appendices Appendix A Standard tolerance values and basic hole system, basic shaft system have priority, commonly used 606
Appendix B Properties of Commonly Used Stamping Materials 612
Appendix C Models, Specifications and Bottom Hole Sizes of Extrusion Threading Machines 616
Appendix D Comparison Table of Symbols for Mechanical Properties of Metallic Materials 619
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