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Practical Handbook of Special Casting Production

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Special casting production practical manualPublished time: 2015 edition Brief introduction Special casting involves a lot of technology categories. This book follows the current development of the casting industry and the actual application of production. It comprehensively introduces the production technology experience and data of various types of special casting, including Investment precision casting, shell casting, metal casting, iron sand covering casting, ceramic casting, centrifugal casting technology and equipment, squeeze casting and semi-solid forming technology, anti-gravity casting technology, continuous casting technology and equipment, Material manufacturing technology and the application of 3D printing in new industrial development, etc. 10 parts.
Chapter 1 Investment Casting 1
1.1 Overview of Investment Casting 1
1.1.1 Basic Concepts 1
1.1.2 Production process of investment casting 1
1.1.3 Production mode of investment casting 1
1.1.4 Metal materials and properties commonly used in investment precision casting 2
1.1.5 Molten shells with water glass as the binder and quartz sand powder as the refractory can be cast. 4
1.1.6 Economics of Investment Casting 4
1.1.7 Issues to be considered in the preparation of investment casting workshop (or factory) 5
1.1.8 Problems in Investment Casting 5
1.1.9 Replace the wax mold R method with the vanishing mold white mold
1.2 Casting process design 9
1.2.1 Design Contents of Investment Castings 9
1.2.2 Structural requirements for investment castings 9
1.2.3 Process bars, process holes, casting process drawings, process parameters 11
1.2.4 Casting drawing drawing 12
1.2.5 Selecting and determining parting surfaces 12
1.2.6 Determine the datum plane 13
1.2.7 Casting Fillet, Casting Slope, Machining Allowance, Casting Shrinkage 14
1.2.8 Estimating the Quality of Precision Castings 15
1.2.9 Basic requirements for the gating system, types and characteristics of the gating system 15
1.2.10 Functions and Forms of Gate Cups 16
1.2.11 Thermal joints, thermal pitch circle diameters of castings 16
1.2.12 Calculation of Inner Gate Section Size by Equivalent Thermal Section Method 17
1.2.13 Relationship between solidification zone width and casting quality 18
1.2.14 Effect of metal shrinkage on casting quality after pouring 18
1.2.15 The role of the riser in the investment casting process 18
1.2.16 Subsidies, internal cooling iron 19
1.2.17 Investment casting filtration technology 20
1.2.18 Precautions for process design of stainless steel investment castings 20
1.2.19 Precautions for process design of sleeve-type investment castings 20
1.3 Profile Design and Manufacturing 21
1.3.1 Structural Requirements for Forming 21
1.3.2 Total Shrinkage of Profile Size 22
1.3.3 Profile cavity size 22
1.3.4 Profile dimensional accuracy and surface roughness, profile type 23
1.3.5 Making and Maintaining Steel Profiles 24
1.3.6 Common Preparation Methods, Manufacturing and Maintenance of Low Melting Alloy Profiles 24
1.3.7 Making Plastic Profiles 26
1.3.8 What are the characteristics and how to make and use gypsum 28
1.3.9 Designing Principles of Forming of Automatic Wax Pressing Machine 30
1.4 core making 30
1.4.1 Methods of Forming Complex Internal Cavities of Castings 30
1.4.2 Making a Steel Core 31
1.4.3 Making soluble cores 31
1.4.4 Making Ceramic Cores 33
1.4.5 Making a Water Glass Core 33
1.4.6 Preventing the Opening Deformation of Wax Molds
1.4.7 Blade castings, neither upper nor lower surfaces are processed, how to make wax patterns 34
1.5 Investment mold manufacturing 35
1.5.1 Basic requirements for raw materials for molding materials 35
1.5.2 Main properties of paraffin-stearic acid moulding materials and alternative materials for stearic acid 36
1.5.3 Paraffin-stearic acid moulding materials can be heated by water-blocking instead of directly by electric furnace when melting
1.5.4 Medium temperature molding materials currently produced and used at home and abroad 36
1.5.5 Low-molecular-weight polyethylene molding material performance 37
1.5.6 Adjusting the composition of paraffin-stearic acid moulding materials according to climatic characteristics 38
1.5.7 Preparation of Molding Materials
1.5.8 Performance better than paraffin-low molecular weight polyethylene molding compound
1.5.9 Responsibilities of the staff preparing the molding material 41
1.5.10 How to Use Release Agents When Compressing Investment Moulds 41
1.5.11 Impact of Molding Working Temperature, Molding Site Temperature, and Mold Material Temperature on the Quality of the Investment Mold 41
1.5.12 When the temperature exceeds a certain temperature, the surface of the investment mold blisters, and the section of the ring structure is completely disengaged.
1.5.13 The influence of the injection pressure on the quality of the investment mold, the relationship between the profile wax injection port and the profile 42
1.5.14 Additives for investment cooling water 42
1.5.15 It is not advisable to use the free casting method to obtain the investment mold for plaster molding. 42
Classification of 1.5.16 wax press and the working principle of molding production line 43
1.5.17 Faults and troubleshooting of wax presses, operating procedures and maintenance 44
1.5.18 Surface quality requirements of investment patterns, causes of cracks in investment patterns 45
1.5.19 Causes and Solutions of Deformation, Warping, Cold Isolation, or Insufficient Casting of the Investment Mold 45
1.5.20 Trimming, Storage, and Storage of Investment Moulds and Making Methods of Gate Rods 45
1.5.21 Fuse Module Welding, Assembly of Complex Investment Molds, Wax-Based Mold Material Performance Tests 46
1.6 Stripping (wax) mold and mold material recovery 47
1.6.1 Common Dewaxing Methods 47
1.6.2 Hot water dewaxing process 47
1.6.3 "Saponification reaction" of mold material and determination method of saponified matter 48
1.6.4 Recycling methods for molding materials 49
1.6.5 The low temperature molding material discolors during use, and acid red treatment cannot eliminate dark red. 50
1.6.6 Mold shell cracks during dewaxing
1.6.7 Treating old mold material with hydrochloric acid 51
1.6.8 Eliminate dark brown or reddish brown color, saponification elimination treatment 51
1.6.9 Points to note when paraffin-stearic acid mold materials are recovered by acid method 52
1.6.10 Recycling of Mold Electrolysis 52
1.7 Shell Manufacturing 54
1.7.1 Performance requirements of shells, common raw materials and their functions 54
1.7.2 Quartz Material Process Requirements
1.7.3 Main Specifications and Properties of Bauxite 55
1.7.4 Binders for Shell Making 55
1.7.5 Process performance indicators of water glass 56
1.7.6 Process parameters for selecting water glass when preparing coatings 56
1.7.7 Raising the Water Glass Modulus 57
1.7.8 Poor storage of water glass will deteriorate 58
1.7.9 Determination of Modulus of Water Glass 58
1.7.10 Quality of water glass coatings 60
1.7.11 Coating viscosity determination and its effect on shell quality 61
1.7.12 Effect of temperature on the performance of water glass coatings 61
1.7.13 Adding amount of degreasing agent, defoaming agent and penetrant 62
1.7.14 Function and Formulation of Reinforced Coatings 63
1.7.15 "Mature Period" of Coatings and Storage of Coatings 64
1.7.16 Coating methods and precautions for paint 64
1.7.17 Natural drying of water glass shell before hardening 64
1.7.18 Formulation of ammonium chloride hardener 65
1.7.19 Determination of Na2O content in coatings and mouldings 65
1.7.20 Effect of hardening time on the quality of the shell and detection of the effect of hardening of the shell
1.7.21 Formulating Ethyl Silicate Coatings
1.7.22 Manufacturing Shells with Ethyl Silicate Coatings 73
1.7.23 Preventing Shell Delamination 74
1.7.24 Preventing deformation of the shell and bulging of the shell 75
1.7.25 Type Shell Long "White Hair" 761.8 Type Shell Roasting 76
1.8.1 Water-glass binder shells to be fired 76
1.8.2 Issues to be aware of when roasting type shells 77
1.8.3 Roasting quality of type shell, quality control of water glass shell 79
1.8.4 Mass of silica sol shell 851.9 Melting 90
1.9.1 Metal materials suitable for investment casting
1.9.2 Investment casting precision metal melting equipment, electric arc furnace rapid steelmaking process features and operating points 91
1.9.3 Ways to Save Electricity in Electric Arc Furnace 93
1.9.4 Melting Characteristics of Induction Furnace and Crucible Stamping and Repair 93
1.9.5 Frequently Asked Questions about Melting Operation of Induction Furnace 94
1.9.6 Calculation of Burst Ingredients 981.10 Pouring 100
1.10.1 Detection before pouring 100
1.10.2 Pouring temperature, operation process, mold temperature 101
1.11 Cleaning Up 102
1.11.1 Shelling 102
1.11.2 Cutting of Casting System 103
1.11.3 Surface cleaning of precision castings
1.11.4 Alkali cooking 104
1.12 Heat Treatment 105
1.12.1 Investment castings are heat treated 105
1.12.2 Types and specifications of heat treatment of precision castings 105
1.12.3 Selection of heat treatment methods for castings 106
1.12.4 Determine the heat treatment heating rate of castings 107
1.13 Detection and Control
1.13.1 Detection
1.13.2 Control 108
1.14 Defects and Prevention of Investment Casting 111
1.14.1 Casting size deviation 111
1.14.2 Rough surface of castings
1.14.3 Surface Defect Class 119
1.14.4 Hole class 125
1.14.5 Crack Cold Insulation Class 128
1.14.6 Incomplete Classes
1.14.7 Inclusion Classes
Chapter 2 Shell Molding 140
2.1 Overview of Shell Casting
2.1.1 Process of Shell Casting 140
2.1.2 Process characteristics of shell casting 140
2.1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Shell Casting and Its Application 142
2.1.4 Application Examples of Shell Casting 142
2.2 Process Design of Shell Castings 143
2.2.1 Selection of casting parting surface
2.2.2 Shrinkage of Castings 143
2.2.3 Casting surface roughness and dimensional accuracy 144
2.2.4 Casting slope and machining allowance 144
2.2.5 Design of Casting System
2.3 Shell Molding (Core) Material 148
2.3.1 Shell Casting Raw Sand and Basic Properties
2.3.2 Preparation of Resin Sand
2.3.3 Testing of the properties of phenolic resin for shell and core
2.4 Template and Core Box Making 157
2.4.1 Selection of template and core box materials
2.4.2 Model Scale 157
2.4.3 Template and core box processing accuracy 158
2.4.4 Draft Slope 158
2.4.5 Heat treatment of templates and core boxes
2.4.6 Core Box Structure Design 161
2.4.7 Template Structure
2.5 Shell (Core) Casting Process 175
2.5.1 Parting Agents
2.5.2 Shell (Core) Technology 175
2.5.3 Influence of Process Factors on Quality of Manufacturing Shell (Core)
2.5.4 Shell and Shell Core Analysis
2.5.5 Shell-shaped fitting assembly 180
2.5.6 Casting and Cleaning of Castings
2.5.7 Shell Casting Defects and Prevention 182
2.6 Hot Box Method 185
2.6.1 Process of the Hot Box Method
2.6.2 Core Materials
2.6.3 Core Manufacturing Process by Hot Box Method 191
2.7 Coated Sand Stacking Casting Process and Application Example 192
2.7.1 Main Features of Coated Sand Casting
2.7.2 Raw and auxiliary materials of coated sand 192
2.7.3 Production Technology and Equipment of Coated Sand
2.7.4 Covered Sand Detection 195
2.7.5 Abnormal treatment of coated sand production line 195
2.7.6 Casting sand casting process 195
2.7.7 Common Defects, Causes, and Solutions in the Use of Coated Sand
Chapter 3 Metal Casting 197
3.1 Metal Casting Overview
3.1.1 Comparison of Metal Casting and Sand Casting
3.1.2 Characteristics of the Forming Process of Metal Mold Castings
3.2 Metal mold casting process 202
3.2.1 Metal mold casting process flow 202
3.2.2 Metal mold casting process 202
3.3 Characteristics of Various Alloy Metal Castings
3.3.1 Cast Iron 210
3.3.2 Cast Steel 211
3.3.3 Copper Alloys
3.3.4 Light Alloy 211
3.4 Process Design of Metal Castings 212
3.4.1 Technical Analysis of Casting Structure 212
3.4.2 Pouring position of castings in metal molds
3.4.3 Selection of Parting Surfaces for Castings
3.4.4 Design of the Pouring System
3.4.5 Design of Riser 217
3.4.6 Process Parameters of Metal Castings 218
3.5 Design of Metal Type 218
3.5.1 Metal Form Structure 219
3.5.2 Metal Body Design 219
3.5.3 Core Design
3.5.4 Metal Exhaust
3.5.5 Design of ejection mechanism 225
3.5.6 Metal positioning, guiding and locking mechanism 227
3.5.7 Selection of Metal Materials
3.6 Defects and Prevention of Metal Castings 229
3.6.1 Stomata 229
3.6.2 Pinholes
3.6.3 Shrinkage and Shrinkage
3.6.4 Slag hole 235
3.6.5 Cracks
3.6.6 Cold partition and insufficient pouring 240
3.6.7 White Mouth 243
3.7 Metal Casting Mechanization and Examples
3.7.1 Manual Metal Mold Casting Machine
3.7.2 Pneumatic and Hydraulic Metal Mold Casting Machine 245
3.8 Metal Mold Casting Production Line and Example 247
3.8.1 Cast Iron Grinding Ball Metal Mold Casting and Production Line 248
3.8.2 Automobile and motorcycle aluminum casting metal mold casting and production line 252
3.9 Metal Casting Production Typical Castings 262
3.9.1 Metal Casting of Motorcycle Aluminum Alloy Monolithic Wheels
3.9.2 Metal Casting of Large Aluminum Pistons 264
3.9.3 Improvements in the aluminum piston casting process
3.9.4 Analysis of Defects in the Handle of a Metal Mold
3.9.5 Two-liquid bimetal composite casting jaw plate new process 270
3.9.6 Typical Mold Casting Process
Chapter 4 Metal Mold Sand Casting 281
4.1 Overview of Metal Sand Covered Casting 281
4.1.1 Production Principles of Iron Sand Covered Casting 281
4.1.2 Heat exchange characteristics of iron mold sand-covered casting 282
4.1.3 Cooling speed of iron-type sand-covered castings
4.1.4 Process Flow
4.1.5 Application of Iron Sand Covered Casting 283
4.1.6 Iron mold sand-covered casting production line 285
4.2 Resin sand for thermosetting and self-hardening core box 285
4.2.1 Furfuryl alcohol modified urea-formaldehyde resin sand 285
4.2.2 Furfuryl alcohol modified phenolic resin sand 291
4.2.3 Other resin sand 292
4.3 Examples of castings produced by iron-clad casting
4.3.1 Wheel castings 293
4.3.2 Six-cylinder ductile iron crankshaft 296
4.3.3 Application of Iron-type Sand-covered Casting Process on Gray Iron Thin-walled Belt Machine
4.3.4 Application of iron-type sand-covered casting technology in cylinder liner blank production 300
4.3.5 Traction wheel iron mold sand-covered casting and production process control 302
4.4 Iron Sand Covering and Casting Defects and Prevention 304
4.4.1 Iron type sand covering (iron mold sand covering, sand covering metal type) 304
4.4.2 Defects of Iron Mold Sand-Covered Castings and Prevention 305
Chapter 5 Ceramic Casting 306
5.1 Overview of Ceramic Casting
5.1.1 Ceramic mold casting process 306
5.1.2 Principles of Ceramic Mold Casting
5.1.3 Casting Features
5.1.4 Application Scope
5.2 Process Design of Ceramic Mold Castings
5.2.1 Master Material Selection 308
5.2.2 Master mold surface quality 309
5.2.3 Master mold dimensional accuracy 310
5.2.4 Casting slope 310
5.2.5 Casting Shrinkage 310
5.2.6 Parting Surface Determination 310
5.2.7 Gating System and Riser Design 311
5.2.8 Processing allowance 312
5.2.9 Datum Selection
5.3 Casting Process 314
5.3.1 Raw and auxiliary materials for mold 314
5.3.2 Molding Process
5.4 Common Ceramic Type Defects and Their Prevention Methods
5.4.1 Type Crack 325
5.4.2 Stomata 326
5.4.3 Casting size deviation 326
5.4.4 Roughness of Casting Surface 327
5.4.5 Common Defects in Molds and Preventive Measures 328
Chapter 6 Centrifugal Casting 329
6.1 Overview of Centrifugal Casting
6.1.1 Basic Principles of Centrifugal Casting
6.1.2 Centrifugal Casting Classification
6.1.3 Centrifugal Casting Features
6.1.4 Centrifugal Casting Principles
6.1.5 Centrifugal Casting Applications 333
6.2 Centrifugal Casting Processes
6.2.1 Mold speed 334
6.2.2 Casting System
6.2.3 Pouring Weight
6.2.4 Casting devices
6.2.5 Utilization of slag
6.2.6 Filtration of molten metal
6.2.7 Use of Coatings
6.2.8 Pouring temperature 340
6.2.9 Casting Release 340
6.2.10 Centrifugal casting 340
6.2.11 Centrifugal infiltration 340
6.2.12 Special technological measures for centrifugal casting 341
6.3 Centrifugal casting equipment 341
6.3.1 Horizontal Cantilever Centrifugal Casting Machine 341
6.3.2 Drum Centrifugal Casting Machine 341
6.3.3 Vertical Centrifugal Casting Machine 341
6.4 Centrifugal mold 344
6.4.1 Centrifugal Mold Design
6.4.2 Structural Features of Centrifugal Mold
6.5 Centrifugal Cast Iron Pipe Production Process 350
6.5.1 Types and Main Uses of Cast Iron Pipes
6.5.2 Water-Cooled Metal Centrifugal Cast Pipe 350
6.5.3 Resin Sand Centrifugal Cast Pipe 353
6.5.4 Centrifugal Cast Metal Pipe (Hot Mold Method) 353
6.5.5 Centrifugal Cast Iron Rollers
6.5.6 Centrifugal Casting Cylinder Liner 357
6.5.7 Centrifugal Cast Steel Pipe 358
6.5.8 Centrifugal Cast Steel Back Bushing 358
Chapter 7 Squeeze Casting and Semi-Solid Forming 361
7.1 Squeeze Casting
7.1.1 Squeeze Casting Process
7.1.2 Squeeze Casting Process Features 363
7.1.3 Application Range of Squeeze Casting 363
7.1.4 Squeeze Casting Machines
7.1.5 Squeeze Casting and Mold Design 366
7.2 Semi-solid molding
7.2.1 Process Principles
7.2.2 Preparation of semi-solid alloy slurry
7.2.3 Molding Method
7.2.4 Technical Advantages
Chapter 8 Anti-Gravity Casting 379
8.1 Overview of Anti-Gravity Casting
8.1.1 Anti-gravity casting classification
8.1.2 Anti-gravity casting features 380
8.1.3 Anti-gravity casting process 381
8.2 Anti-gravity casting process 382
8.2.1 Low-pressure casting
8.2.2 Differential Pressure Casting
8.2.3 Vacuum suction casting
Chapter 9 Continuous Casting 412
9.1 Principles and Process Features of Continuous Casting 412
9.1.1 Continuous Casting Technology Principles
9.1.2 Features of Continuous Casting
9.1.3 Classification and Use of Continuous Casting
9.2 Continuous Casting
9.2.1 Process Principles of Continuous Cast Iron Pipes
9.2.2 Continuous Cast Iron Pipe Process Flow
9.2.3 Application Range of Continuous Cast Iron Pipe 414
9.2.4 Continuous cast iron pipe equipment
9.2.5 Continuous Pipe Casting Machine 418
9.2.6 Crystallizer
9.2.7 Gating Systems
9.2.8 Continuous Casting Process 443
9.2.9 Main Defects and Prevention Methods of Continuous Cast Iron Pipes
9.3 Horizontal continuous casting of cast iron profiles 456
9.3.1 Horizontal Continuous Casting Process of Cast Iron 456
9.3.2 Microstructure and performance characteristics of cast iron profiles 458
9.3.3 Application of Cast Iron Profiles
9.3.4 Production of Horizontal Continuous Cast Iron Sections 465
9.3.5 Quality Inspection of Cast Iron Profiles and Analysis of Common Defects 469
9.4 Continuous Casting of High-Density Zero-Defect Cast Iron Hollow Sections 472
9.5 Continuous Casting Billet 475
Chapter 10 Additive Manufacturing Technology-3D Printing 478
10.1 Additive Manufacturing Technology 478
10.1.13D Printing Overview
10.1.2 Classification of Additive Manufacturing Technologies 479
10.1.3 Key Technologies of Additive Manufacturing 480
10.1.4 Advantages of Additive Manufacturing Technology 480
10.2 Technical Applications of Additive Manufacturing
10.2.1 Consumer Goods and Electronics 480
10.2.2 Aviation
10.2.3 Examples of Aerospace Applications
10.2.4 High-Performance Laser Repair 486
10.3 Opportunities for Additive Manufacturing to the Foundry Industry 488
Reference 491

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