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Welding Manual Volume 2 Welding of Materials Third Edition Revision

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Welding Manual Volume 2 Welding of the third edition of the material Publication time: 2014 edition Introduction "Welding Manual" is a comprehensive professional reference book compiled by experts from the Chinese Society of Mechanical Engineering Welding Society to organize experts nationwide. Specific manifestation for production services. The continuous enrichment and improvement of the contents of this manual is a long-term task of the Society. The revised version is based on the third edition, and still maintains a wide selection of materials, highlights the practicality, accuracy, and reliability of the manual; it adopts the results of the rapid development of welding production technology at home and abroad in recent years and is newly issued National and international standards. There are 3 volumes of manuals (welding methods and equipment, welding of materials, and welding structures). This book is the second volume. This volume consists of 5 chapters and 23 chapters. The main contents include: welding basics of materials, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, dissimilar materials, and welding of new materials. Strive for practicality in content and refinement and image in expression. According to the needs of production, provide the properties of the base metal and welding characteristics, welding materials, welding processes, defects and prevention. Special emphasis is given to giving and analyzing production examples to make the manual more practical. The readers of this manual are mainly engineers and technicians engaged in welding production in various industrial sectors. At the same time, this manual is also a necessary reference book for welding scientific research, design and teaching personnel to solve practical problems.
Revision of the Catalogue Publication Description of the 3rd Edition of the Welding Manual Preface of the 2nd Edition of the Welding Manual Volume 3 Preface Chapter 1 Weldability Basics of Materials Chapter 1 Welding Thermal Process 1
1.1 Characteristics of the welding thermal process 1
1.2 Welding heat source 1
1.2.1 Types and characteristics of welding heat sources 1
1.2.2 Welding thermal efficiency 2
1.2.3 Heat distribution pattern on weldments 3
1.3 Welding temperature field 6
1.3.1 Basic Laws of Welding Heat Transfer 6
1.3.2 Mathematical description of welding heat conduction problem 6
1.3.3 Typical welding temperature field 8
1.3.4 The main factors affecting the welding temperature field 12
1.4 Welding Thermal Cycles 14
1.4.1 Main parameters of welding thermal cycle 15
1.4.2 Characteristics of multilayer welding thermal cycle 20
1.4.3 Features of Pulse Welding Thermal Cycles 22
1.5 Numerical Simulation of Welding Heat Conduction 23
1.5.1 Basic Concepts of Numerical Simulation 23
1.5.2 Finite Difference Calculation of Welding Heat Conduction 23
1.5.3 Calculation of Welding Heat Conduction by Finite Element Method 23
1.6 Numerical Simulation of Weld Pool Shapes 26
1.6.1 Fluid flow in the welding bath 26
1.6.2 Governing Equations of Weld Pool Shapes 27
1.6.3 Influence of Molten Pool Fluid Flow on Welding Quality 28
References 29
Chapter 2 Welding Metallurgy 31
2.1 Welding Chemical Metallurgy 31
2.1.1 Characteristics of welding chemical metallurgy 31
2.1.2 Gases and welding slag in the welding zone 33
2.1.3 Three-phase interaction between metal, gas and slag in welding zone 39
2.1.4 Alloying of Weld Metals and Composition Control 48
2.2 Solidification of weld pool and phase transformation of weld 52
2.2.1 The characteristics of the solidification process of the welding pool 52
2.2.2 Crystalline form of weld metal 53
2.2.3 Microstructure and properties of weld metal 61
2.2.4 Welding fusion zone and its characteristics 69
References 71
Chapter 3 Welding HAZ Structure and Performance 73
3.1 Overview 73
3.1.1 Formation of welding heat affected zone 73
3.1.2 The main factors affecting the heat affected zone of welding
3.2 Microstructure and Performance Characteristics of Welding HAZ of Solid Non-Phase Change Materials 73
3.3 Microstructure and Performance Characteristics of Welding HAZ in Solid State Phase Change Materials 75
3.3.1 Microstructure and Performance Characteristics of Welding HAZ of Pure Metals and Single-Phase Alloys with Allotropic Transformation 76
3.3.2 Microstructure and Performance Characteristics of Welding HAZ in Heterogeneous Alloys with Heterogeneous Transformation 77
3.3.3 Microstructure and Performance Characteristics of Welding HAZ for Heterogeneous Alloys without Heterogeneous Transformation 92
3.4 Microstructure and performance characteristics of HAZ during welding of dissimilar materials 96
References 99
Chapter 4 Welding Defects 100
4.1 Overview
4.1.1 Definition of Welding Defects and Welding Defects
4.1.2 Classification of Welding Defects
4.2 Segregation and inclusions in weld metal 100
4.2.1 Segregation in welds
4.2.2 Inclusions in the weld
4.3 Air Holes in Welds
4.3.1 Classification of air holes in welds
4.3.2 Mechanism of Porosity Formation in Welds
4.3.3 Factors Influencing Weld Formation
4.3.4 Measures to prevent welds from forming pores
4.4 Welding Cracks
4.4.1 Classification of welding cracks
4.4.2 Welding Hot Cracks
4.4.3 Welding Cold Cracks
4.4.4 Lamellar tearing 120
4.4.5 Reheat Cracks
4.4.6 Stress Corrosion Cracking
References 128
Chapter 5 Metal Weldability and Test Methods 130
5.1 Metal Weldability
5.1.1 Definition of Metal Weldability
5.1.2 Factors Influencing Weldability of Metal 131
5.2 Metal weldability test 131
5.2.1 Test methods and classification of metal weldability 131
5.2.2 Process weldability test 131
5.2.3 Use of weldability test
· ⅩⅥⅩⅦ · 5.3 Test method for weldability of process 132
5.3.1 Indirect Evaluation of Process Weldability
5.3.2 Direct test method for process weldability 137
5.4 Use of Weldability Test Methods
5.4.1 Mechanical properties test of welded joints
5.4.2 Brittle fracture resistance test of welded joint 149
5.4.3 Fatigue and dynamic load test of welded joints 150
5.4.4 Corrosion resistance test of welded joints 150
5.4.5 High temperature performance test of welded joints 153
5.5 Welding heat, stress, and strain simulation test methods 154
5.5.1 Principles of Welding Heat, Stress, and Strain Simulation Tests
5.5.2 Welding heat, stress, and strain simulation test device 154
Reference 155 Chapter 2 Welding of Iron and Steel Chapter 6 Welding of Carbon Steel 157
6.1 Types, Standards and Properties of Carbon Steel 157
6.1.1 Overview
6.1.2 Carbon structural steel 157
6.1.3 High-quality carbon structural steel 157
6.1.4 Special carbon structural steel 162
6.1.5 Cast Carbon Steel
6.2 Welding materials for carbon steel 175
6.2.1 Welding Rods
6.2.2 Carbon steel solid welding wire for gas shielded arc welding 185
6.2.3 Flux-cored welding wire for carbon steel 186
6.2.4 Carbon steel wire and flux for submerged arc welding 191
6.3 Factors Influencing Weldability of Carbon Steel 196
6.3.1 Carbon equivalent 196
6.3.2 Microstructure
6.3.3 Constraints and Hydrogen
6.3.4 Effect of impurity elements in carbon steel 197
6.3.5 Impact of Carbon Steel Delivery Status 198
6.3.6 Effects of Matching Welding Materials
6.4 Common welding methods and welding processes for carbon steel 199
6.5 Welding of Low Carbon Steel 199
6.5.1 Weldability analysis of low carbon steel 199
6.5.2 Key Points of Welding Process for Low Carbon Steel 200
6.6 Welding of Medium Carbon Steel 202
6.6.1 Weldability Analysis of Medium Carbon Steel 202
6.6.2 Key points of welding process for medium carbon steel 202
6.6.3 Welding of Typical Medium Carbon Steel
6.7 Welding of high carbon steel 203
6.7.1 Weldability analysis of high carbon steel 203
6.7.2 Key points of high carbon steel welding process 203
6.7.3 Welding of Typical High Carbon Steels
References 204
Chapter 7 Welding of Low Alloy Steel 205
7.1 Types, Standards and Properties of Low Alloy Steels 205
7.1.1 Overview
7.1.2 Classification
7.2 Welding materials for low alloy steel 205
7.2.1 Welding Rods
7.2.2 Solid Wire for Gas Shielded Arc Welding
7.2.3 Flux-cored welding wire for low alloy steel 216
7.2.4 Protective gas for welding 223
7.2.5 Coordination of wire and flux for submerged arc welding and electroslag welding
7.2.6 Principles for the selection of welding materials for low alloy steel 229
7.3 Welding of low-alloy high-strength steels 229
7.3.1 Low-alloy high-strength steel types, uses,
Standards and performance 229
7.3.2 Weldability of low alloy high strength steel 234
7.3.3 Welding process of low alloy high strength steel 241
7.3.4 Welding of Typical Steels and Examples
7.4 Welding of quenched and tempered steel 248
7.4.1 Types, Uses, Standards and Properties of Tempered Steel 248
7.4.2 Weldability of quenched and tempered steel 255
7.4.3 Welding process of quenched and tempered steel 258
7.4.4 Welding of Typical Steels and Examples 264
Welding of 7.5 TMCP steel 267
7.5.1 Introduction to TMCP Steel
7.5.2 Weldability of TMCP steel 267
7.5.3 Welding of pipeline steel 268
7.5.4 Welding of fine-grained carbon steel 272
7.5.5 Welding of Fine Grain Weathering Steel 274
7.6 Welding of Low Alloy Low Temperature Steel 277
7.6.1 Types and uses of low alloy low temperature steels,
Standards and performance 277
7.6.2 Weldability of low alloy low temperature steel 279
7.6.3 Essentials of Welding Processes for Low Alloy Low Temperature Steel 279
7.6.4 Welding of Typical Steels and Examples
7.7 Welding of weathering steel and seawater corrosion resistant steel 282
7.7.1 Types of weathering steel and seawater corrosion resistant steel,
Uses, standards and performance 282
7.7.2 Weldability of weathering steel and seawater corrosion resistant steel 283
7.7.3 Welding materials for weathering steel and seawater corrosion resistant steel 283
7.7.4 Welding process of weathering steel and seawater corrosion resistant steel 284
7.7.5 Welding of Typical Steels and Examples 284
7.8 Welding of Low Alloy Coated Steel 285
7.8.1 Types, uses of low alloy coated steel,
Standards and performance 285
7.8.2 Galvanized Steel and Welding 285
7.8.3 Welding of aluminized steel 287
References 289
Chapter 8 Welding of Heat-Resistant Steel 291
8.1 Overview
8.1.1 Types of heat-resistant steel
8.1.2 Application range of heat-resistant steel 291
8.1.3 Basic requirements for properties of heat-resistant steel welded joints
8.2 Welding of low-alloy heat-resistant steels 293
8.2.1 Chemical composition, mechanical properties and heat treatment status of low alloy heat resistant steel 293
8.2.2 Welding characteristics of low alloy heat resistant steel 293
8.2.3 Welding process of low-alloy heat-resistant steel
8.2.4 Control of low alloy heat resistant steel joint performance 304
8.2.5 Low-alloy heat-resistant steel welding example 308
8.3 Welding of medium alloy heat resistant steel 310
Chemical composition and mechanical properties of 8.3.1 alloy heat-resistant steel 310
8.3.2 Welding characteristics of alloy heat-resistant steel 314
8.3.3 Welding process of medium alloy heat resistant steel 316
8.3.4 Mechanical properties of welded joints in alloy heat-resistant steel
8.3.5 Example of Welding of Medium-alloy Heat-resistant Steel 327
8.4 Welding of high-alloy heat-resistant steel 329
8.4.1 Chemical composition and mechanical properties of high-alloy heat-resistant steel 329
8.4.2 Welding characteristics of high-alloy heat-resistant steel
8.4.3 Welding process of high alloy heat resistant steel 343
8.4.4 Performance of high alloy heat resistant steel joints 353
8.4.5 High-alloy heat-resistant steel welding example 357
8.5 Welding of dissimilar heat-resistant steel joints 358
8.5.1 Principles for the selection of welding materials for dissimilar heat-resistant steel joints
8.5.2 Welding process of dissimilar heat-resistant steel welding joints
References 362
Chapter 9 Welding of Stainless Steel 364
9.1 Overview of Stainless Steel
9.1.1 Types, Chemical Compositions, and Uses of Stainless Steel 364
9.1.2 Organizational Features of Stainless Steel
9.1.3 Physical and mechanical properties of stainless steel 384
9.1.4 Corrosion resistance of stainless steel 386
9.2 Welding methods and materials for stainless steel 388
9.2.1 Welding methods for stainless steel
9.2.2 Fillers for stainless steel welding 389
9.3 Welding of austenitic stainless steel 399
9.3.1 Types and Applications of Austenitic Stainless Steel 399
9.3.2 Welding characteristics of austenitic stainless steel
9.3.3 Selection of welding methods and welding materials 402
9.3.4 Product Welding Example 412
9.4 Welding of Martensitic Stainless Steel 413
9.4.1 Types and Applications of Martensitic Stainless Steel 413
9.4.2 Welding characteristics of martensitic stainless steel 414
9.4.3 Welding methods and selection of welding materials 415
9.4.4 Key points of welding process for martensitic stainless steel 415
9.4.5 Product Welding Example 417
9.5 Welding of Ferritic Stainless Steel 418
9.5.1 Types and Applications of Ferritic Stainless Steels
9.5.2 Welding characteristics of ferritic stainless steel
9.5.3 Welding process and welding material selection 420
9.5.4 Product welding example 421
9.6 Welding of Ferritic-Austenitic Duplex Stainless Steel 422
9.6.1 Features and Applications of Ferritic Austenitic Duplex Stainless Steel 422
9.6.2 Chemical composition, mechanical properties and microstructure characteristics of duplex stainless steel 422
9.6.3 Welding characteristics of duplex stainless steel
9.6.4 Welding Process Methods and Welding Materials
9.6.5 Key Points of Welding Processes for Various Types of Duplex Stainless Steel 429
9.6.6 Product welding example 429
9.7 Welding of precipitation hardened stainless steel 430
9.7.1 Types and Applications of Precipitation Hardened Stainless Steel 430
9.7.2 Welding Features of Precipitation Hardened Stainless Steel 430
9.7.3 Welding process methods and selection of welding materials 433
9.7.4 Product Welding Example 433
Brazing of 9.8 stainless steel 434
9.8.1 Application Areas of Stainless Steel Brazing 434
9.8.2 Brazing Properties of Stainless Steel 434
9.8.3 Solder 434
9.8.4 Flux
9.8.5 Large Gap Brazing 438
9.8.6 Brazing Methods and Processes of Stainless Steel 438
9.8.7 Product Brazing Example 439
References 440
· ⅩⅧⅩⅨ · Chapter 10 Welding of other high alloy steels 441
10.1 Welding of Martensitic Low Temperature Steel 441
10.1.1 Chemical Composition
10.1.2 Role of Alloy Elements
10.1.3 Heat treatment 442
10.1.4 Mechanical Properties
10.1.5 Physical Properties
10.1.6 Weldability 443
10.1.7 Welding methods and materials 444
10.1.8 Welding Processes
10.2 Welding of Ultra High Strength Nickel-Cobalt Steel
10.2.1 Overview
10.2.2 Chemical Composition
10.2.3 Effect of Alloy Elements
10.2.4 Mechanical Properties
10.2.5 Heat Treatment and Microstructure
10.2.6 Weldability 448
10.2.7 Welding methods and processes 449
10.3 Welding of austenitic low temperature non-magnetic steel 449
10.3.1 Welding of austenitic low temperature non-magnetic stainless steel 449
10.3.2 Welding of manganese and aluminum high manganese austenite low temperature non-magnetic steel 450
10.3.3 Welding of high-manganese austenite ultra-low temperature non-magnetic steel 453
10.4 Welding of Maraging Steel 455
10.4.1 Welding of Maraging Steel 455
10.4.2 Welding of cobalt-free maraging steel 459
10.4.3 Welding of Maraging Aging Stainless Steel 465
10.5 Welding of wear-resistant high-manganese steels 467
10.5.1 Chemical composition of wear-resistant high manganese steel at home and abroad 467
10.5.2 Fe? Mn? C ternary alloy phase diagram for high manganese steel 467
10.5.3 Mechanical properties of wear-resistant high-manganese steel 468
10.5.4 Effect of Alloying Elements on Mechanical Properties of Wear-Resistant High-Manganese Steel 468
10.5.5 Work hardening of high manganese steel 469
10.5.6 Heating performance of high manganese steel 469
10.5.7 Weldability of high manganese steel 470
10.5.8 Welding of high manganese steels
References 473
Chapter 11 Welding of Cast Iron 475
11.1 Overview
11.1.1 Types, Standards and Properties of Cast Iron 475
11.1.2 Application and Application of Cast Iron Welding
11.2 Weldability of cast iron 480
11.2.1 Sensitivity of welded joints to form white cast iron and high carbon martensite 480
11.2.2 Sensitivity to cold and hot cracks in welded joints
11.2.3 Refractory Weldability of Welded Metamorphic Cast Iron 484
11.3 Welding of Gray Cast Iron 485
11.3.1 Fusion welding process and welding materials for homogeneous (cast iron) welds 485
11.3.2 Arc Welding Materials and Processes for Heterogeneous (Non-Iron Cast) Welds 490
11.3.3 Brazing
11.3.4 Spray Welding
11.4 Welding of Ductile Iron 499
11.4.1 Welding of Ferritic Ductile Iron 499
11.4.2 Welding of pearlite ductile iron 501
11.4.3 Welding of Austenitic-Bainite Ductile Iron 502
11.5 Welding of vermicular graphite iron, white cast iron and malleable iron 503
11.5.1 Welding of Vermicular Cast Iron 503
11.5.2 Welding of white cast iron 504
11.5.3 Welding of malleable cast iron 505
11.6 Welding of Cast Iron and Steel
Reference 507 Chapter 3 Welding of Nonferrous Metals Chapter 12 Welding of Aluminum, Magnesium and Its Alloys 509
12.1 Welding of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
12.1.1 Overview
12.1.2 Grades, Compositions, and Properties of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 509
12.1.3 Aluminum and aluminum alloy welding materials 525
12.1.4 Weldability of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
12.1.5 Welding Defects in Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys and Their Prevention
12.1.6 Flame Gas Welding
12.1.7 Tungsten Inert Gas Shielded Arc Welding 546
12.1.8 Melting extremely inert gas shielded arc welding 557
12.1.9 Changing Polarity Plasma Arc Welding
12.1.10 Laser Welding
12.1.11 Electron Beam Welding
12.1.12 Friction stir welding 593
12.1.13 Resistance Welding
12.1.14 Brazing
12.2 Welding of Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys
12.2.1 Grades, Compositions, and Properties of Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 622
12.2.2 Welding materials for magnesium and magnesium alloys 622
12.2.3 Weldability of magnesium and magnesium alloys 622
12.2.4 Welding Defects and Prevention of Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys 627
12.2.5 Welding methods for magnesium and magnesium alloys
12.2.6 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloy Welding Technology Safety 640
References 640
Chapter 13 Welding of Titanium and Its Alloys
13.1 Overview
13.2 Weldability of titanium and its alloys 650
13.2.1 Interstitial element contamination causes embrittlement 650
13.2.2 Intermetallic compounds cause embrittlement
13.2.3 Performance Changes Due to Welding Phase Transitions
13.2.4 Crack 654
13.2.5 Stomatals 654
13.2.6 Relative Weldability
13.3 Welding Materials and Processes
13.3.1 Welding Materials
13.3.2 Cleaning Before Welding 655
13.3.3 Tungsten Arc Welding 655
13.3.4 Active agent argon arc welding (A? TIG welding) 658
13.3.5 Fused Arc Welding 659
13.3.6 Plasma Arc Welding
13.3.7 Vacuum Electron Beam Welding
13.3.8 Laser Welding
13.3.9 EDM Surfacing
13.3.10 Explosive Welding
13.3.11 Flash Welding
13.3.12 High Frequency Welding
13.3.13 Friction Welding
13.3.14 Diffusion Welding
13.3.15 Diffusion Brazing
13.3.16 Brazing 665
13.3.17 Resistance Spot and Seam Welding
13.4 Weld Defects and Repair Welding Processes
13.4.1 Stomatal 667
13.4.2 Crack 667
13.4.3 Not Welded Through 667
13.4.4 Tungsten Inclusion 667
13.4.5 Retraction of weld back 667
13.4.6 Defects Caused by Poor Protection
13.4.7 Repair Welding Processes
13.5 Titanium nickel, titanium aluminum alloy welding 668
13.5.1 Titanium-nickel alloy welding 668
13.5.2 Titanium-Aluminum Alloy Welding
13.6 Post-weld heat treatment
13.6.1 Annealing
13.6.2 Quenching and aging treatment 670
13.6.3 Aging
13.6.4 Stress Relief 670
13.7 Examples of welding of titanium and titanium alloys 671
13.7.1 Welding of pressure vessels
13.7.2 Pipe Butt Welding
13.7.3 Welding of Titanium Steel Composite Plates
13.7.4 Tube Sheet Welding
13.7.53 million tons of industrial pure titanium welding for synthetic ammonia equipment 675
13.7.6 Titanium Liner Welding of Stripper 675
13.7.7 Boiler Titanium Float Welding 676
13.7.8 Welding of mid-wing props of hydrofoil craft 676
References 677
Chapter 14 Welding of Copper and Its Alloys 680
14.1 Types and Properties of Copper and Copper Alloys 680
14.1.1 Pure Copper 680
14.1.2 Brass 681
14.1.3 Bronze 682
14.1.4 White Copper 683
14.2 Weldability Analysis of Copper and Copper Alloys
14.2.1 Not easy to melt 684
14.2.2 Prone to Welding Hot Cracks 685
14.2.3 Prone to Pores 685
14.2.4 Easily Generated Metal Evaporation 685
14.2.5 Degradation of Joint Performance 686
14.3 Methods of Welding Copper and Copper Alloys
14.3.1 Welding
14.3.2 Resistance Welding
14.3.3 Brazing
14.3.4 Diffusion Welding
14.3.5 Friction Welding and Friction Stir Welding
14.4 Fusion Welding of Copper and Copper Alloys
14.4.1 Gas Welding
14.4.2 Electrode Arc Welding
14.4.3 Submerged Arc Welding
14.4.4 Tungsten Gas Shielded Welding
14.4.5 Fused-electrode gas shielded welding 693
14.4.6 Plasma Arc Welding
14.4.7 Electron Beam Welding
14.4.8 Laser Welding
14.5 Brazing of Copper and Copper Alloys
14.5.1 Brazeability of Copper and Copper Alloys
14.5.2 Brazing 703
14.5.3 Soldering 709
14.6 Friction welding of copper and copper alloys 710
14.6.1 Ordinary friction welding 710
· XXXIX · 14.6.2 Friction stir welding 710
Reference 714
Chapter 15 Welding of Superalloys 716
15.1 General Introduction to Superalloys
15.1.1 Definition, Classification and Strengthening of Superalloys 716
15.1.2 Superalloy Grades and Chemical Composition 717
15.1.3 Heat Treatment and Properties of Superalloys 717
15.1.4 Uses of Superalloys
15.2 Weldability of Superalloys 725
15.2.1 Crack Sensitivity of Welded Joints of Superalloys 725
15.2.2 Heterogeneity of Joint Structures
15.2.3 Equal Strength of Welded Joints
15.3 Arc Welding of Superalloys
15.3.1 Tungsten Inert Gas Shielded Arc Welding
15.3.2 Fused Very Inert Gas Shielded Arc Welding 737
15.3.3 Plasma Arc Welding
15.4 Electron Beam and Laser Welding of Superalloys
15.4.1 Electron Beam Welding
15.4.2 Laser Welding
15.5 Resistance and Friction Welding of Superalloys
15.5.1 Resistance Spot Welding
15.5.2 Resistance Seam Welding
15.5.3 Friction Welding
15.6 Brazing and Diffusion Welding of Superalloys 748
15.6.1 Brazing properties of superalloys 748
15.6.2 Brazing 749
15.6.3 Large-gap brazing process 757
15.6.4 Solid-phase diffusion welding
15.6.5 Transient Liquid Phase Diffusion Welding (TLP) 760
References 761
Chapter 16 Welding of Nickel-Based Corrosion Resistant Alloys 763
16.1 Overview 763
16.1.1 Properties of Pure Nickel
16.1.2 Metallurgy of nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloys 763
16.1.3 Grades, Classification and Properties of Nickel-Based Corrosion Resistant Alloys 766
16.2 Arc Welding of Nickel-Based Corrosion Resistant Alloys
16.2.1 Welding characteristics of nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloys 778
16.2.2 Electrode Arc Welding of Nickel-Based Corrosion Resistant Alloys
16.2.3 Tungsten gas shielded arc welding of nickel-based corrosion resistant alloys 792
16.2.4 Melt Electrode Gas Shielded Arc Welding of Nickel-Based Corrosion Resistant Alloys 804
16.2.5 Plasma Arc Welding of Nickel-Based Corrosion Resistant Alloys 805
16.2.6 Submerged arc welding of nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloys 805
16.2.7 Connector Design 807
16.2.8 Surfacing of Nickel-based Corrosion Resistant Alloy 808
16.3 Resistance welding of nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloys 810
16.3.1 Spot Welding of Nickel-Based Corrosion Resistant Alloys 810
16.3.2 Seam Welding of Nickel-Based Corrosion Resistant Alloys 812
16.3.3 Flash welding of nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloys 813
16.4 Brazing of Nickel-Based Corrosion Resistant Alloys 813
16.4.1 Brazing of Nickel-Based Corrosion Resistant Alloys 813
16.4.2 Soldering of Nickel-Based Corrosion Resistant Alloys 815
References 815
Chapter 17 Welding of Rare and Non-Ferrous Metals 816
17.1 Welding of uranium and uranium alloys 816
17.1.1 Overview
17.1.2 Uses of uranium and uranium alloys 818
17.1.3 Weldability Analysis of Uranium and Uranium Alloys
17.1.4 Surface treatment 819
17.1.5 Welding materials 819
17.1.6 Welding methods and processes
17.1.7 Welding Defects and Preventive Measures
17.1.8 Safety and Protection Measures 827
17.2 Welding of Beryllium
17.2.1 Overview
17.2.2 Weldability Analysis
17.2.3 Surface Condition and Surface Treatment
17.2.4 Welding materials 831
17.2.5 Welding methods and processes
17.2.6 Welding Defects and Preventive Measures 845
17.2.7 Welding Examples
17.2.8 Safety and protective measures 848
17.3 Welding of Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys 848
17.3.1 Overview
17.3.2 Weldability of zirconium and zirconium alloys 852
17.3.3 Surface treatment
17.3.4 Welding Materials
17.3.5 Welding methods and processes 854
17.3.6 Welding Defects and Prevention
17.3.7 Welding Examples
17.4 Welding of Vanadium and Vanadium Alloys
17.4.1 Overview
17.4.2 Weldability Analysis of Vanadium and Vanadium Alloys 867
17.4.3 Progress in Welding of Vanadium and Vanadium Alloys 868
17.4.4 Surface treatment of vanadium and vanadium alloys 868
17.4.5 Welding materials 868
17.4.6 Welding methods and processes of vanadium and vanadium alloys 869
17.4.7 Welding Defects and Preventive Measures 871
17.5 Welding of silver and silver alloys 871
17.5.1 Overview
17.5.2 Weldability Analysis of Silver and Silver Alloys
17.5.3 Welding methods and processes
17.6 Welding of Gold and Gold Alloys 878
17.6.1 Overview
17.6.2 Weldability Analysis of Gold and Gold Alloys
17.6.3 Welding methods and processes
17.7 Welding of Platinum and Platinum Alloys 882
17.7.1 Overview
17.7.2 Weldability Analysis of Platinum and Platinum Alloys
17.7.3 Welding methods and processes
17.8 Welding of Lead and Lead Alloys 883
17.8.1 Overview
17.8.2 Weldability Analysis of Lead and Lead Alloys
17.8.3 Welding methods and processes
17.9 Welding of zinc and zinc alloys 888
17.9.1 Overview
17.9.2 Weldability Analysis of Zinc and Zinc Alloys
17.9.3 Welding methods and processes 888
Reference 890 Chapter 4 Welding of refractory metals and dissimilar metals Chapter 18 Welding of refractory metals 892
18.1 Overview
18.1.1 Material properties
18.1.2 Weldability of Refractory Metals
18.2 Welding Processes for Refractory Metals and Their Alloys 899
18.2.1 Welding of Tungsten, Molybdenum and Its Alloys 899
18.2.2 Welding of tantalum, niobium, and their alloys 904
18.3 Welding of Refractory Metals with Other Nonferrous Metals
18.3.1 Welding of Dissimilar Refractory Metals
18.3.2 Welding of Molybdenum with Other Nonferrous Metals
18.3.3 Welding of Niobium with Other Nonferrous Metals
References 912
Chapter 19 Welding of Dissimilar Metals 913
19.1 Overview
19.1.1 Weldability of dissimilar metals 913
19.1.2 Welding process measures and quality control of dissimilar metals 916
19.2 Welding of Dissimilar Steels
19.2.1 Process characteristics of commonly used dissimilar steel welding 923
19.2.2 Welding of Different Steel Types of the Same Structure 926
19.2.3 Welding of pearlitic steel and austenitic steel
19.2.4 Welding of pearlitic steel and martensitic steel 936
19.2.5 Welding of pearlitic steel and ferritic steel 938
19.2.6 Welding of Austenitic Steel and Ferritic Steel 939
19.2.7 Welding of Austenitic and Martensitic Steels 940
19.2.8 Welding of composite metal plates 940
19.2.9 Examples and Applications of Dissimilar Steel Welding 946
19.3 Welding of dissimilar non-ferrous metals 949
19.3.1 Copper and Aluminum Welding
19.3.2 Welding of Copper and Titanium
19.3.3 Copper and Nickel Welding
19.3.4 Welding of Titanium and Aluminum
19.4 Welding of Steel to Nonferrous Metals 955
19.4.1 Welding of Steel to Copper 955
19.4.2 Welding of Steel to Aluminum 957
19.4.3 Welding of Steel to Titanium
19.4.4 Examples of welding between steel and non-ferrous metals 961
19.5 Welding of Steel to High-Temperature Metals 962
19.5.1 Welding of Steel to Refractory Metal 962
19.5.2 Welding of Steel and Superalloys
References 969
Chapter 20 Surfacing of Metal Materials 970
20.1 Overview 970
20.1.1 Surfacing and Its Applications 970
20.1.2 Usability of Surfacing Metals
20.1.3 Surfacing Process Features 974
20.1.4 Surfacing Method 976
20.2 Surfacing Alloys and Surfacing Processes 982
20.2.1 Classification of Surfacing Alloys
20.2.2 Composition, Process, and Selection of Iron-based Surfacing Alloys 983
20.2.3 Nickel, cobalt, copper and alloy surfacing components,
Process and selection
20.2.4 Composition, Process and Selection of Other Surfacing Alloys 1019
20.3 Selection and Application of Surfacing Alloys 1026
20.3.1 Selection of Surfacing Alloys 1026
20.3.2 Application Examples 1027
Reference 1029 Chapter 5 Welding of New Materials Chapter 21 Welding of Plastics 1031
21.1 Overview 1031
21.2 Weldability Analysis of Plastics 1031
21.3 Overview of Plastic Connection Methods 1032
21.4 Direct heat welding 1035
21.4.1 Hot Gas Welding 1035
21.4.2 Hot Tool Welding 1037
21.4.3 Resistance implant welding 1041
21.4.4 Laser Welding 1042
21.5 Ultrasonic Welding 1043
21.6 Induction implant welding 1045
21.7 Friction Welding 1046
· ⅩⅫⅩ? · 21.7.1 Rotary friction welding and linear vibration welding 1046
21.7.2 Friction Stir Welding 1047
21.8 Solvent welding 1048
21.9 Welding methods for common plastics 1049
21.9.1 ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer) 1049
21.9.2 Polycarbonate 1049
21.9.3 Polymethyl methacrylate plastic
(PMMA) 1050
21.9.4 Polystyrene (PS) 1050
21.9.5 Polyethylene and polypropylene 1051
21.9.6 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 1051
21.9.7PEEK, PES1051
References 1051
Chapter 22 Ceramic-to-ceramic, Ceramic-to-Metal Connections 1053
22.1 Overview 1053
22.1.1 Introduction to Ceramics 1053
22.1.2 Performance Characteristics of Common Structural Ceramics 1053
22.2 Ceramic-to-ceramic, ceramic-to-metal connection characteristics 1055
22.2.1 Basic Features of Ceramic Connections 1055
22.2.2 Metallurgical Incompatibility of Ceramics and Metals 1056
22.2.3 Mismatch in Physical and Mechanical Properties of Ceramics and Metals 1057
22.3 Main methods of ceramic-to-ceramic, ceramic-to-metal connection 1057
22.3.1 Indirect brazing by sintered metal powder method 1058
22.3.2 Vacuum Brazing of Active Metal Solder 1058
22.3.3 Vacuum Diffusion Welding 1061
22.3.4 Other Connection Methods
22.4 Application Examples for Ceramic-to-Metal Connections 1069
22.4.1 Car Engine Supercharger Rotor 1069
22.4.2 Ceramic / Metal Rocker 1069
22.4.3 Ceramic / Metal Tappet 1069
22.4.4 Some Examples of Ceramic and Metal Seals Used in Other Electronic Devices
References 1070
Chapter 23 Welding of Composites 1073
23.1 Overview 1073
23.1.1 Classification of Composites 1073
23.1.2 Performance characteristics of composite materials 1073
23.2 Connection of Metal Matrix Composites 1075
23.2.1 Major Problems with Metal Matrix Composite Connections 1075
23.2.2 Fusion Welding of Metal Matrix Composites 1076
23.2.3 Brazing of Metal Matrix Composites 1079
23.2.4 Diffusion welding of metal matrix composites 1083
23.2.5 Resistance welding of metal matrix composites 1087
23.2.6 Friction Welding and Friction Stir Welding of Metal Matrix Composites 1088
23.2.7 Self-propagating High Temperature Synthesis Welding of Metal Matrix Composites 1089
23.3 Connection of Organic Composites 1089
23.3.1 Connection Characteristics of Organic Composites 1089
23.3.2 Weldability Analysis of Thermoplastic Resin Matrix Composites 1090
23.3.3 Externally Heated Welding of Thermoplastic Resin Matrix Composites 1091
23.3.4 Inner heating welding of thermoplastic resin matrix composites 1093
23.3.5 Bonding of thermosetting resin-based composites 1095
23.4 Gluing and Welding of Ceramic Matrix Composites 1096
23.4.1 Gluing of Ceramic Matrix Composites 1096
23.4.2 Welding of Ceramic Matrix Composites 1096
References 1098
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