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Welding Manual Volume 3 Welded Structures Third Revision

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Welding Manual (Volume 3): Welded Structures (Revised Third Edition)
Publication time: Introduction to the 2015 edition "Welding Manual: Welded Structures (3rd Edition Revision)", a total of 3 chapters and 33 chapters. Chapter 1 Basics of Welded Structures describes the problems that should be paid attention to in various aspects, including joint design, mechanical properties, deformation, fatigue, and environmental effects. Part 2 explains the typical structure of welding by industry in detail. Part 3 mainly introduces technology, testing, organization and economy, workshop design, and safety protection.
Catalogue Revised Publication Instructions for the 3rd Edition of Welding Manual Preface Welding Manual Volume 3 3rd Edition (Revised Edition) Preface Welding Manual Volume 3 3rd Edition Preface Chapter 1 Welding Structure Foundation Chapter 1 Welding Structure Common metal materials
1.1 Metal materials commonly used in welding structures
1.1.1 Structural steel
1.1.2 Special steel
1.1.3 Non-ferrous materials
1.1.4 Composite materials and metal-based composite materials
1.2 Basic principles of material selection for welding structures
1.2.1 Selection principle of base material
1.2.2 References for the selection of welding materials

Chapter 2 Welded Joints and Their Geometric Design
2.1 The role and characteristics of welded joints
2.1.1 The role of welded joints
2.1.2 Characteristics of welded joints
2.2 Geometric design of welded joints
2.2.1 Classification and basic types of welded joints
2.2.2 Geometric design of fusion welding joint
2.2.3 Geometric design of pressure welding joint
2.2.4 Geometric design of brazed joints
2.2.5 Related Knowledge Links-Riveted Joints and Bolted Joints
2.3 Geometric design of special fusion welding joint
2.3.1 Electron beam welding head
2.3.2 Laser welding head
2.3.3 Electroslag welding head
2.3.4 Welded joints
2.4 Geometrical design of grooves for fusion welds
2.4.1 Bevels and bevel types
2.4.2 Geometric parameters and processing requirements of grooves
2.4.3 Geometric design of grooves for gas welding, electrode arc welding, gas shielded welding and high energy beam welding
2.4.4 Geometric design of groove for submerged arc welding joint
2.4.5 Geometric design principles of grooves
2.5 Influence of geometric parameters of welded joints on the working stress distribution of joints
2.5.1 Influence of Geometric Parameters of Common Welding Joints on Joint Working Stress Distribution
2.5.2 Influence of geometric parameters of joints commonly used on resistance welding on the working stress distribution of joints
2.6 Geometric design principles of welded joints
2.6.1 General design principles for welded joints
2.6.2 Geometric Design Considerations for Common Welded Joints
2.7 Representation of welded joints on welded structure design drawings
2.7.1 Weld symbol and welding method code
2.7.2 Representation of welded joints on drawings
2.8 Related Knowledge Links——References on Design Principles for Strength and Toughness of Structural Steel Welded Joint

Chapter 3 Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints
3.1 Mechanical properties and testing of welded joints
3.1.1 General principles for sampling of mechanical properties
3.1.2 Basic mechanical performance test
3.1.3 Fracture toughness of welded joints
3.1.4 Fatigue performance of welded joints
3.1.5 Creep and Durability of Welded Joints
3.1.6 Stress corrosion performance of welded joints
3.1.7 Introduction to other mechanical property test methods
3.2 Influence of non-uniformity of welded joints on mechanical properties
3.2.1 General characteristics of macromechanical heterogeneity of welded joints
3.2.2 Influence of heterogeneity of macro mechanical properties of welded joints on performance test results
3.2.3 Influence of non-uniformity of metallographic structure
3.3 Requirements for the mechanical properties of welded joints in the design of different structures
3.3.1 General considerations
3.3.2 References for joint strength and toughness matching under different working conditions

Chapter 4 Welding Stress and Deformation
4.1 Basic concepts
4.1.1 Production mechanism, influencing factors and internal relations
4.1.2 Influence of physical and mechanical properties of materials
4.1.3 Influence of different types of welding heat sources
4.1.4 Transient stress and deformation caused by welding heat source
4.2 Welding stress
4.2.1 Classification of welding stress
4.2.2 Measurement method of welding residual stress
4.2.3 Effect and influence of welding residual stress
4.2.4 Typical distribution of welding residual stress in components
4.2.5 Control, adjust and eliminate welding residual stress
4.3 Welding deformation
4.3.1 Classification of welding deformation
4.3.2 Welding deformation on typical components
4.3.3 Control and elimination of welding deformation

Chapter 5 Welded Structure Fatigue
5.1 Basic concepts of fatigue
5.1.1 Fatigue crack initiation and propagation mechanism
5.1.2 High cycle low stress fatigue
5.1.3 Low cycle high strain fatigue
5.1.4 Variable amplitude load fatigue and fatigue cumulative damage
5.2 Fatigue load and fatigue stress spectrum
5.2.1 General principles
5.2.2 Fatigue load model
5.2.3 Fatigue stress spectrum
5.3 Fatigue strength of welded structures
5.3.1 Fatigue performance of welded joints
5.3.2 Other factors affecting fatigue strength of welded structures
5.3.3 Methods for improving fatigue strength of welded joints
5.4 Fatigue design
5.4.1 Fatigue design method
5.4.2 Fatigue limit state design method
5.4.3 Fatigue strength design curve and detail type
5.4.4 Fatigue assessment of hollow section members
5.5 Fatigue Life Assessment
5.5.1 Evaluation of crack initiation life
5.5.2 Fatigue crack propagation life assessment
5.6 Evaluation of Existing Structure Durability Years and Cumulative Fatigue Damage
5.6.1 Steel Bridge Durability Years
5.6.2 Assumptions for calculation of durability years
5.6.3 Calculation of durability years
5.6.4 References for Cumulative Fatigue Calculations

Chapter 6 Fracture and Safety Assessment of Welded Structures
6.1 Introduction
6.1.1 Examples of typical brittle fracture accidents
6.1.2 Examples of brittle fracture accidents in recent years
6.2 Brittle fracture mechanism and influencing factors
6.2.1 Crack generation and propagation of brittle and ductile fracture
6.2.2 Brittle fracture characteristics and main factors affecting the fracture of metallic materials
6.3 Anti-break design criteria and related test methods
6.3.1 Anti-break design criteria
6.3.2 Test method for crack resistance
6.3.3 Test method for crack arrest performance
6.4 Measures to prevent brittle fracture
6.4.1 Material selection
6.4.2 Reasonable welding structure design
6.4.3 Reasonably arrange the structure manufacturing process
6.5 Safety assessment of welded structures
6.5.1 The "Fit to Use" Principle and Its Development
6.5.2 Evaluation of facial defects
6.5.3 Evaluation of volume defects
6.6 Failure analysis of welded structures
6.6.1 Classification of Welded Structure Failures
6.6.2 Procedure References for Failure Analysis

Chapter 7 Environmental Failure of Welded Structures
7.1 Corrosion failure of welded structures
7.1.1 Basic forms of corrosion damage of welded joints
7.1.2 Corrosion of welded structure in natural environment
7.1.3 Local corrosion of welded structures
7.2 Fracture and fatigue under medium environment
7.2.1 Stress corrosion cracking
7.2.2 Environmental hydrogen embrittlement
7.2.3 Corrosion fatigue
7.3 Evaluation of corrosion resistance of welded joints and measures to improve corrosion resistance
7.3.1 Corrosion test of welded joints
7.3.2 Corrosion resistance of common welded joints
7.3.3 Ways to Improve Corrosion Resistance of Welded Joints
7.3.4 Surface protection of welded structures
7.4 Heat resistance of welded joints
7.4.1 Microstructure Changes of Welded Joints at High Temperature
7.4.2 High temperature performance of welded joints
7.4.3 High temperature creep of welded joints
7.4.4 High temperature oxidation of welded joints
7.4.5 Thermal fatigue of welded joints
7.5 Typical Cases and Analysis of Environmental Accelerated Welding Structure Failures

Chapter 8 Standards and Regulations
8.1 Overview of Welding Standardization at Home and Abroad
8.1.1 Main Standardization Institutions and Functions
8.1.2 Status Quo of Welding Standards at Home and Abroad
8.2 Overview of the main standards in welding manufacturing
8.2.1 Welding quality requirements
8.2.2 Welding procedure specification and qualification
8.2.3 Qualification assessment of welding personnel (recognition)
8.2.4 Terms and symbols
8.2.5 Joint preparation
8.2.6 Quality grade
8.2.7 Welding materials
8.2.8 Test and inspection of welded joints
8.3 Welding standards for different industries
8.3.1 Pressure equipment
8.3.2 Ship industry
8.3.3 Nuclear power industry
8.3.4 Power industry
8.3.5 Railway industry
8.3.6 Construction and engineering construction industry
8.3.7 Oil and gas industry
8.3.8 Aviation industry

Chapter 2 Typical Welded Structure Design Chapter 9 Welded Structure Design Principles and Methods
9.1 Characteristics of welding structure
9.2 Basic requirements and principles of welding structure design
9.2.1 Basic requirements for design
9.2.2 Basic Principles of Design
9.3 Basic methods of welding structure design
9.3.1 Allowable stress design method
9.3.2 Reliability Design
9.3.3 Design values of allowable stress, safety factor and strength
9.4 Attentions in structural design of welded structures
9.4.1 Accessibility of structural welding and inspection
9.4.2 Detailed processing in structural design
9.4.3 Structural dimensional stability
9.4.4 Lamellar tearing references

Chapter 10 Strength and Calculation of Welded Joints
10.1 Overview
10.2 Working stress distribution of welded joints
10.2.1 Working stress distribution of fusion welded joints
10.2.2 Working Stress Distribution of Resistance Welding Joints
10.3 Static load strength calculation of welded joints
10.3.1 Allowable stress design method for welded joints
10.3.2 Welded joint limit state design method
10.4 Fatigue strength calculation of welded joints
10.4.1 Fatigue calculation of crane welded structure
10.4.2 References for fatigue calculation of building steel structures

Chapter 11 Design and Calculation of Welding Basic Components
11.1 Welded beams
11.1.1 Forms of welded composite beams
11.1.2 Beam Stiffness and Strength
11.1.3 Overall Stability of the Beam
11.1.4 Local Stability of Beams
11.1.5 Post-buckling strength of beam webs
11.1.6 Several other issues in the design of welded beams
11.2 Welded columns
11.2.1 Classification of Welded Columns
11.2.2 Control of calculated length and stiffness of members
11.2.3 Strength and Stability of Axial Forced Members
11.2.4 Strength and stability of bending members
11.2.5 Structural Design of Welded Columns
11.3 Welded steel trusses
11.3.1 Classification and Application of Welded Steel Trusses
11.3.2 Main dimensions and requirements of trusses
11.3.3 Internal Force Calculation and Combination of Trusses
11.3.4 Section selection of ordinary steel truss members
11.3.5 Some structural requirements of steel trusses

Chapter 12 Welding Structure of Mechanical Parts
12.1 Presses
12.1.1 Overview of Pressure Mechanisms
12.1.2 New Structure of Press Slider
12.1.3 New Structure of Press Beam
12.1.4 New Structure of Press Base
12.1.5 New Structure of Press Column
12.1.6 New Structure of Press Body
12.1.7 New Structure of Open Frame
12.1.8 New Structure of Other Pressure Mechanisms
12.2 Transmission parts
12.2.1 Wheel Parts
12.2.2 Cylinder and eccentric body
12.2.3 Swing axis
12.2.4 Bearing housing
12.2.5 Connecting rod and rocker
12.3 Gearbox
12.3.1 Box structure
12.3.2 Examples
12.4 Large parts of metal cutting machine tools
12.4.1 Overview
12.4.2 Bed
12.4.3 Post
12.4.4 Beam References

Chapter 13 Boilers, Pressure Vessels and Pipes
13.1 Overview
13.2 Structural forms and classification of boilers and pressure vessels
13.2.1 Types of Boilers
13.2.2 Typical structure of boiler
13.2.3 Classification of pressure vessels
13.2.4 Structure of pressure vessel
13.2.5 Steel for pressure vessels
13.3 Piping
13.3.1 Types of pipes
13.3.2 Classification and Selection of Steel for Pipeline
13.4 Strength calculation of boilers, pressure vessels and pipes
13.4.1 Strength calculation of boiler pressure parts
13.4.2 Strength calculation of welded container
13.4.3 Strength calculations for spherical and vertical cylindrical storage tanks
13.4.4 Pipeline Strength Calculations
13.4.5 Shell opening reinforcement design
13.5 Fatigue design of boiler pressure parts and pressure vessels
13.6 Design of welded joints of boiler pressure parts, pressure vessels and pipes
13.6.1 Design criteria for welded joints
13.6.2 Design of Welded Joints in Single-layer Compressed Shells
13.6.3 Design of welded joints for multilayer pressure vessels
13.6.4 Design of welded joints for pressure vessels made of stainless composite steel plate
13.6.5 Design of Welded Joints of Boiler Pressure Parts
13.6.6 Tube / tubesheet joint form of heat exchanger
13.6.7 Design of Welded Joints in Storage Tanks
13.7 Examples of typical structure of pressure vessels
13.7.1 Nuclear reactor pressure vessels
13.7.2 Nuclear power plant steam generators
13.7.324 million t / a urea synthesis tower
13.7.4 CO2 stripping tower
13.7.5 References for Large LNG Storage Tanks

Chapter 14 Building Welded Structures
14.1 Overview
14.1.1 Application Scope of Building Welded Steel Structure
14.1.2 Main contents of this chapter
14.1.3 Precautions for steel selection and joint design
14.2 Welded steel trusses
14.2.1 Introduction to Welded Steel Trusses
14.2.2 Type Steel Truss Joints
14.2.3 Steel tube truss joints
14.3 Long Span Steel Structures
14.3.1 Introduction to Long Span Steel Structure
14.3.2 Grid Structure Nodes
14.3.3 Reticulated Shell Structure Nodes
14.4 Steel Structures of Industrial Plants
14.4.1 Introduction to Steel Structure of Plant
14.4.2 Main Nodes of Steel Structure of Plant
14.4.3 Main nodes of portal rigid frame
14.4.4 Other connection nodes of beams and columns
14.5 Steel Structures for Multiple and High-rise Buildings
14.5.1 Introduction to Steel Structure of Multi-storey and High-rise Buildings
14.5.2 Column-to-Column Connections
14.5.3 References for Beam to Column Connections

Chapter 15 Welded Structures of Railway Vehicles
15.1 Overview
15.1.1 Classification of Railway Vehicles
15.1.2 Classification and General Structure of Railway Vehicle Body
15.1.3 Characteristics of Welding Structure of Car Body
15.1.4 General considerations for the design of welded structural parts of vehicle bodies
15.2 General purpose trucks
15.2.1 Welded structure of chassis
15.2.2 Welded structure on the upper part of the car body
15.3 Growing Car
15.3.1 Concave bottom flat car
15.3.2 Clamp Truck
15.3.3 Drop hole car
15.3.4 Cargo hook
15.4 EMU
15.4.1 Internal combustion EMU
15.4.2 EMU
15.5 Diesel locomotives
15.5.1 Bogie Structure of Diesel Locomotive
15.5.2 Body Structure of Diesel Locomotive
15.6 Bus
15.6.1 Bus Bogie Structure
15.6.2 References for Bus Body Structure

Chapter 16 Ship and Offshore Engineering Welded Structures
16.1 Overview
16.1.1 Classification of ships
16.1.2 Characteristics of the hull structure
16.1.3 Typical hull structure and its characteristics
16.1.4 Features of Offshore Engineering Structure
16.1.5 Related Design Specifications and Standards
16.2 Typical ship welding structures
16.2.1 Ship construction and process characteristics
16.2.2 Composition and welding of hull structure
16.2.3 bottom structure
16.2.4 Side Structure
16.2.5 Deck structure
16.2.6 Bulkhead Structure
16.2.7 Crotch and crotch structure
16.2.8 Liquefied gas tank structure
16.3 Typical Structures of Offshore Engineering
16.3.1 Semi-submersible platform structure
16.3.2 Jack-up platform structure
16.3.3 Jacket-type platform structure
16.3.4 Life module structure
16.3.5 Requirements for steel and welds in offshore engineering structures
16.4 Design method and precautions of hull structure
16.4.1 Basic methods and design stages of hull structure design
16.4.2 Main Points to Note in Structural Design
16.4.3 Design and selection of various openings in structural parts
16.4.4 References to welding design and welding methods for typical hull structures

Chapter 17 Crane Welded Structures
17.1 Overview
17.1.1 Crane Classification
17.1.2 Basic parameters and working levels of cranes
17.1.3 Load
17.2 Structural materials, allowable stress and stiffness
17.2.1 Structural materials
17.2.2 Allowable stress of structural materials
17.2.3 Fatigue strength, fatigue allowable stress, stress concentration
17.2.4 Crane Structure Stiffness
17.3 Metal Structure
17.3.1 Bridge
17.3.2 Main Beam
17.3.3 end beam
17.3.4 Bridge connection
17.4 Main beam partial design
17.4.1 Arch Beam
17.4.2 Splice Weld Design for Flange and Web Plates
17.4.3 Design of fillet and other longitudinal fillet welds on the girder rail
17.4.4 Design of transverse stiffeners
17.4.5 Design of longitudinal stiffeners
17.4.6 Orbit
17.4.7 References for the design of rail compaction devices

Chapter 18 Welded Structures of Power Machinery
18.1 Hydroelectric machinery
18.1.1 Francis turbine runner
18.1.2 Welding of Axial Flow Wheel
18.1.3 Impact Turbine Runner
18.1.4 Turbine Spindle
18.1.5 Turbine Seat Ring
18.1.6 Turbine volute and manifold
18.1.7 Turbine runner room
18.1.8 Generator stator frame
18.1.9 Generator rotor bracket
18.1.10 Generator lower frame
18.1.11 Tailor-welding of thick plate parts for hydro generators
18.2 Steam and Gas Turbines
18.2.1 Overview
18.2.2 Typical Welding Structure of Steam Turbine Unit
18.2.3 Typical Welding Structure of Gas Turbine
18.3 Diesel Engine Block
18.3.1 Overview
18.3.2 Key points of body welding structure design
18.3.3 Low-speed marine diesel engine block
18.3.4 References for Locomotive Diesel Engine Blocks

Chapter 19 Welded Steel Bridges
19.1 Overview
19.2 Overview of Bridge Design
19.2.1 Bridge Structure Type
19.2.2 Basic requirements
19.2.3 General Procedures for Bridge Design
19.2.4 Limit State Design
19.2.5 Bridge Design Load
19.3 Steel for bridges
19.3.1 Development of Steel
19.3.2 Steel Selection
19.3.3 Steel Grades and Allowable Stresses
19.3.4 Evaluation of the main properties of steel
19.4 Steel bridge members and their connections
19.4.1 General considerations for component design
19.4.2 Connection
19.5 Steel Deck Structural System
19.5.1 Steel Orthotropic Plate Deck Structure
19.5.2 Crossbeam Bridge Deck Structure
19.6 steel plate beam
19.6.1 Structure of a typical steel plate beam
19.6.2 General requirements for design
19.6.3 Slab Beam Flange Structural Requirements
19.6.4 Webs
19.6.5 Vertical Stiffeners
19.6.6 Horizontal Stiffeners
19.6.7 Construction of Transferred Concentrated Load Points
19.6.8 Connected
19.6.9 Other
19.7 Composite beams
19.7.1 Typical Structural Forms of Composite Beams
19.7.2 Handling of bridge deck combination
19.7.3 General Considerations for Design
19.7.4 Allowable Stress
19.7.5 Construction of Concrete Bridge Deck
19.7.6 Shear Key
19.8 Truss Bridge
19.9 Rigid Frame Bridge
19.10 Steel Pipe Structure
19.11 Arch Bridge
19.12 Cable Structure References

Chapter 20 Welded Structures of Mines and Construction Machinery
20.1 Mining excavators
20.1.1 Overview
20.1.2 Excavator Metal Structure
20.1.3 Materials for Welding Structures of Excavators
20.1.4 Local Design of Excavator Welding Structure
20.2 Welded structure of bulldozer
20.2.1 Overview
20.2.2 Common Materials
20.2.3 Main Welded Structural Parts
20.2.4 Typical Weldments
20.2.5 Local Structure
20.3 Engineering Excavator Welding Structure
20.3.1 Overview
20.3.2 Structure of Excavator
20.3.3 Common Materials and Mechanical Properties
20.3.4 References for Typical Weldments and Local Structures

Chapter 21 Automotive Welded Structures
21.1 Classification and Characteristics of Automotive Structures
21.1.1 Overview
21.1.2 Types of Cars
21.1.3 Classification of Automotive Body Structures
21.1.4 Impact of Welded Structure on Automotive Performance
21.2 Automotive Welding Structure Design
21.2.1 Rationality Analysis of Automotive Welded Structures
21.2.2 Local Stability of Automotive Welded Structures
21.2.3 Working Stress Distribution and Performance of Welded Joints
21.2.4 Calculation of Static Load Strength of Welded Joints
21.2.5 Brittle fracture of automobile welding structure and preventive measures
21.2.6 Fatigue fracture of automobile welding structure and preventive measures
21.3 Typical Automotive Welding Structures
21.3.1 Car Structure
21.3.2 References for Truck Structures

Chapter 22 Typical Aerospace Structures
22.1 Control of welding stress and deformation of aerospace thin shell structures
22.1.1 Instability warping deformation of aerospace plate and shell structure
22.1.2 Methods to Reduce and Eliminate Instability Warpage
22.2 Aircraft Landing Gear Structure
22.2.1 Structural Features
22.2.2 Application of Welding Technology in Aircraft Landing Gear Manufacturing
22.2.3 Process Flow and Welding Process Analysis
22.3 Ribbed siding structure
22.3.1 Overview
22.3.2 Welding of the lower wing panel
22.4 Overall Leaf Disc Structure
22.4.1 Structural Features
22.4.2 Process Flow of Integral Leaf Disc Welding
22.5 Sealed components
22.5.1 Structural Features of Honeycomb Sealing
22.5.2 Process Flow
22.5.3 Brazing Process
22.6 Carrier Rocket Structure
22.6.1 Overview
22.6.2 Structural form of propellant tank
22.6.3 Structural Materials of Propellant Tanks
22.6.4 Manufacturing Process for Propellant Tank Structure
22.6.5 Joint Design for Welds of Propellant Tank Structure
22.6.6 References for Structural Design, Materials and Welding Process of Liquid Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber

Chapter 3 Welded Structure Production Chapter 23 Welded Structure Manufacturing Process
23.1 Overview
23.2 Preparations for Production of Welded Structures
23.2.1 Production Program
23.2.2 Technical Review of Welded Structure Design
23.2.3 Design of Manufacturing Process Plans for Welded Structures
23.2.4 Design of production process specifications for welded structures
23.3 Material preparation process for welding structure production
23.3.1 Pretreatment of steel
23.3.2 Stakeout, Line Drawing and Numbering
23.3.3 Blanking and edge processing
23.3.4 Bending and Forming
23.4 Assembly-Welding Process for Welded Structure Production
23.4.1 Assembly Technology for Welded Structure Production
23.4.2 Welding process for welding structure production
23.4.3 Welding test and welding procedure qualification
23.5 Heat Treatment, Inspection-Trimming and Finishing of Welded Structures
23.5.1 Heat Treatment Process for Welded Structure Production
23.5.2 Inspection, trimming and finishing of welded structure production
23.5.3 Examples of Typical Products Produced by Welded Structures and Their Process Documents References

Chapter 24 Production Equipment for Welded Structure Manufacturing
24.1 Overview
24.1.1 Classification of Production Equipment
24.1.2 Selection Principles of Production Equipment
24.2 Material preparation equipment
24.2.1 Steel pretreatment equipment
24.2.2 Uncoiling Blanking Line
24.2.3 Corrective Equipment
24.2.4 Cutting and cutting equipment
24.2.5 Forming equipment
24.2.6 Bevel processing and hole making equipment
24.3 Welding fixtures
24.3.1 Classification, Composition and Function
24.3.2 Positioning Principles and Implementation Methods
24.3.3 Positioning Fixture
24.3.4 clamping mechanism
24.3.5 Combined Fixture
24.3.6 Key Clamp
24.3.7 Special Fixture
24.4 Welding Displacement Equipment
24.4.1 Welding Positioner
24.4.2 Welding Roller Frame
24.4.3 Turning machine and turntable
24.4.4 Welding Manipulator
24.4.5 Welder Lifting Platform
24.5 Equipment after welding
24.5.1 Equipment Use and Process Purpose
24.5.2 References to Performance and Data of Some Post Process Equipment

Chapter 25 Manufacturing of Typical Welded Structures
25.1 Overview
25.1.1 Difficulties in Manufacturing Welded Structures
25.1.2 Key Technologies for Welded Structure Manufacturing
25.1.3 Prevention, Control and Correction of Product Welding Deformation
25.2 Welding of vessels and pipes
25.2.1 Assembly and welding of vertical storage tanks
25.2.2 Assembly and welding of spherical tanks
25.2.3 Assembly and welding of thin-walled containers
25.2.4 Welding of thick-walled container barrels
25.2.5 Assembly and welding of large cylinders
25.2.6 Welding of Large-diameter Nozzles for Thick Walled Tube
25.2.7 Pipe-to-pipe welding
25.2.8 Welding of Thick Wall Tee
25.2.9 Welded steel pipes
25.2.10 Manufacturing of Finned Tubes
25.3 Manufacture of welded beams and columns
25.3.1 Overview
25.3.2 Welding of I-section beams and columns
25.3.3 Welding of Box Section Beams and Columns
25.4 Welding of vehicle plate and shell structures
25.4.1 Welding of rail vehicle bodies (compartments)
25.4.2 Welding of Railway Freight Cars
25.4.3 Welding of truck body
25.5 Site assembly and welding of large machined parts
25.5.1 Technical requirements for assembly and welding of large flange construction sites
25.5.2 Construction Plan
25.5.3 References for Site-level Assembly Welding Techniques for Large Semi-Fine Machining Stainless Steel Flange

Chapter 26 Mechanization and Automation of Welded Structure Production
26.1 Overview
26.2 Welding centers, welding robots, and welding lines
26.3 Welding Centers and Production Lines for Medium Diameter Welded Pipes
26.3.1 Welding Center of Longitudinal Seam of Medium Diameter Pipe Section
26.3.2 Welding Production Line for Medium Diameter Pipe Segments
26.3.3 Welding Center for Girth Seams of Medium Diameter Tubes
26.3.4 Medium diameter pipe body welding production line
26.4 Welding Center for Annular Seams of Oil Pipelines
26.5 Large-diameter container welding centers and welding production lines
26.5.1 Welding Center for Longitudinal Seam of Large Diameter Container Barrel (Shell) Section
26.5.2 Large-diameter container tube (shell) body ring seam welding center
26.5.3 Large diameter container tube (shell) body welding production line
26.6 Welding centers and welding robots for beam-column structures
26.6.1 Welding Center for Girder of Bridge Crane
26.6.2 Welding automaton for beam and column structures
26.7 Welding Centers and Production Lines for Boiler Structures
26.7.1 Boiler membrane wall 12 (or 24 or 4) head welding center
26.7.2 Boiler membrane wall 12 (or 24 or 4) head welding production line
26.7.3 Boiler serpentine tube welding production line
26.8 Welding center and welding production line for rail vehicle structural parts
26.8.1 Welding Center for Rail Vehicle Bogies
26.8.2 Welding Production Line for Diesel Locomotive Bogies
26.8.3 Arc welding robot workstation for locomotive three-axle bogie side panel
26.8.4 Arc Welding Robot Workstation for Main Beams of Low Chassis Metro Vehicles
26.8.5 Welding automaton for diesel water jacket
26.8.6 Gearbox assembly and welding center for diesel locomotive
26.9 Welding centers and welding production lines for automotive structural parts
26.9.1 Car body-in-white structure and welding line
26.9.2 Welding production line for truck assembly
26.9.3 Welding Center for Girth Seam
26.9.4 Welding automaton and welding center for automobile rims
26.10 Welding automata for motorcycle parts
26.11 Welding centers for welding components in lifting, mining, and construction machinery
26.12 Welding automaton of movable guide vanes of hydraulic turbine
26.13 Large aluminum alloy storage tank elliptical head arc welding robot workstation
26.14 Ship's flat (curved) surface segmented arc welding robot workstation
26.15 Armored Car Body Arc Welding Robot Workstation References

Chapter 27 Nondestructive Testing Techniques for Welded Structures
27.1 Overview
27.1.1 The role and significance of non-destructive testing of welded structures
27.1.2 Nondestructive Testing Methods and Comparison of Welded Structures
27.2 Visual inspection
27.2.1 Visual Inspection Methods and Classification
27.2.2 Direct detection
27.2.3 Indirect detection
27.3 Leak Detection
27.3.1 Leak Detection Methods
27.3.2 Leak Detection Applications
27.4 Ray Inspection
27.4.1 Ray detection methods and classification
27.4.2 Choice of Ray Source
27.4.3 Choice of Ray Film and Intensifying Screen
27.4.4 Ray Transillumination Arrangement
27.4.5 Radiographic Inspection Level
27.4.6 General Procedures for Radiographic Inspection
27.4.7 Identification of missing images on negatives
27.4.8 Evaluation of radiographic negatives-GB / T
3323-2005 Standard Appendix Summary
27.4.9 International Radiographic Standards
27.4.10 New Technologies for Radiographic Inspection
27.5 Ultrasonic testing
27.5.1 Ultrasound detection methods and classification
27.5.2 Probes and instruments for ultrasonic testing
27.5.3 Ultrasonic Testing Level
27.5.4 Ultrasound Detection Sensitivity
27.5.5 General Procedures for Ultrasound Testing
27.5.6 Ultrasonic inspection of flat butt welds
27.5.7 Ultrasonic inspection of other welded structures
27.5.8 Characteristics and Measurements of Missing Signals
27.5.9 Assessment of Defects-Summary of GB / T 11345-1989 Standard
The latest status of the 27.5.10GB / T 11345 standard
27.5.11 International Ultrasound Testing Standard
27.5.12 New Technologies for Ultrasonic Testing
27.6 Magnetic particle detection
27.6.1 Methods and Classification of Magnetic Detection
27.6.2 Magnetization methods and specifications
27.6.3 Magnetic Particle Testing Equipment
27.6.4 Magnetic powder and magnetic suspension
27.6.5 Magnetic particle detection sensitivity test piece (block)
27.6.6 Leakage magnetic fields caused by defects
27.6.7 Operation Procedures for Magnetic Particle Detection
27.6.8 Observation and Evaluation of Magnetic Marks
27.6.9 International Magnetic Particle Testing Standard
27.6.10 New Technologies for Magnetic Detection
27.7 Penetration Testing
27.7.1 Methods and Classification of Penetration Detection
27.7.2 Penetrant Detection Agent and Sensitivity Test Block
27.7.3 General Operating Procedures for Penetration Testing
27.7.4 Interpretation of traces and assessment of defects
27.7.5 International Penetration Testing Standards
27.7.6 New Technologies for Penetration Detection
27.8 Eddy Current Testing
27.8.1 Methods of Eddy Current Detection
27.8.2 Eddy Current Detection Systems and Probes
27.8.3 Eddy Current Detection Technology and Process
27.8.4 Comparative samples
27.8.5 General Operating Procedures for Eddy Current Testing
27.8.6 Evaluation of test results
27.8.7 New Developments in Eddy Current Detection Technology
27.9 New Methods for Nondestructive Testing
27.9.1 Acoustic emission
27.9.2 Metal Magnetic Memory Test
27.9.3 Infrared Thermal Imaging Inspection
27.9.4 References for testing equipment for long-distance pipelines

Chapter 28 Welding Training and Qualification
28.1 Overview of Welding Personnel Training and Qualification
28.1.1 Introduction to International Welding Training System
28.1.2 Implementation of International Welding Training System in China
28.1.3 International Welding Staff Training Regulations
28.1.4 Introduction of National Vocational Skills Appraisal of Welders (including Technicians) in China
28.1.5 Qualification certification procedures and standards for internationally qualified welders
28.2 Establishment and Certification of Quality System for Welding Manufacturing Enterprises
28.2.1 Introduction to Certification Standard System for Welding Manufacturing Enterprises
28.2.2 Introduction of ISO 3834-1 ~ 5 series of standards "Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials"
28.2.3 Introduction of Related Certification Standards for International Welding Manufacturing Enterprises

Chapter 29 Quality Management, Organization and Economy of Welded Structure Production
29.1 Overview
29.1.1 Status of Production Quality Management of Welded Structures
29.1.2 Significance of Quality Management of Welded Structures
29.1.3 Production Organization and Economic Significance of Welded Structures
29.2 Quality Management of Welded Structure Production
29.2.1 Development History of Quality Management
29.2.2 Basic Concepts of Quality Management
29.2.3 Common Methods of Statistical Quality Control
29.2.4 Significance of ISO 9000 Family Standards
29.2.5 Planning and overall design of the quality system
29.2.6 Quality System Organization Structure
29.2.7 Quality System Documents
29.2.8 Audit of Management System
29.2.9 GB / T 12467.1-2009 ~ GB / T
12467.5-2009 / ISO 3834-1: 2005 ~ ISO 3834-5: Introduction
29.2.10 Quality Control in Manufacturing Welded Structures
29.3 Organization and Economy of Welded Structure Production
29.3.1 Space organization of welding production workshop
29.3.2 Time organization of welding production workshop
29.3.3 Calculation of Production Capacity in Welding Workshop
29.3.4 Production Quota Work for Welded Structures
29.3.5 Advanced Production Organization Model
29.3.6 Calculation of Technical and Economic Indicators for Welded Structure Production
29.3.7 References for Cost Control in Production of Welded Structures

Chapter 30 Welding Workshop Design
30.1 Overview
30.2 Design Phase and Content of Welding Workshop
30.2.1 Early Design Stages and Content
30.2.2 Design work phases and content
30.2.3 Late Design Stages and Content
30.3 Related Tasks in Welding Workshop Design
30.4 Technical Transformation and Technology Development Trends
30.4.1 Necessity, Objectives and Content of Technical Transformation
30.4.2 Technology Development Trends
30.5 Welding Workshop Process and Equipment Selection
30.5.1 Process and Selection
30.5.2 Equipment and Selection
30.6 Material and power consumption
30.6.1 Material Consumption
30.6.2 Power Consumption
30.7 Workshop layout
30.7.1 Workshop Composition
30.7.2 Basic Principles of Workshop Arrangement
30.7.3 Selection of plant form and parameters
30.7.4 Warehouse and auxiliary departments
30.7.5 Workshop System Layout Plan
30.7.6 Evaluation and determination of workshop layout plan
30.7.7 Workshop layout example
30.8 Workshop environmental protection and safety and health
30.8.1 Significance and Content of Workshop Environmental Protection and Safety and Health
30.8.2 Security Technology
30.8.3 Health Technology References

Chapter 31 Welding Safety and Cleaner Production
31.1 Cleaner welding production
31.1.1 Significance and Content of Cleaner Welding Production
31.1.2 Definition and Principles of Cleaner Production
31.1.3 Implementation Approaches to Cleaner Production
31.1.4 Cleaner Production Technology and Methods
31.1.5 Status and Implementation of Cleaner Welding Production
31.2 Welding safety and health protection
31.2.1 Overview
31.2.2 Welding safety and health standards
31.2.3 Welding safety technology
31.2.4 References for Welding Labor Hygiene Protection

Chapter 32 Remanufacturing and Extension of Welded Structures
32.1 Introduction to Remanufacturing Engineering
32.1.1 Connotation of Remanufacturing Engineering
32.1.2 Status and Role of Remanufacturing Engineering
32.1.3 Development Trend of Remanufacturing
32.2 Remanufacturing Design Basis
32.2.1 Design and Evaluation of Product Remanufacturability
32.2.2 Failure mechanism and life prediction of waste products
32.2.3 Remanufacturing Process Design and Cost Analysis
32.2.4 Design of quality inspection process for remanufacturing blanks
32.2.5 Cleaning process design during remanufacturing
32.2.6 Remanufactured Product Quality Control Design
32.3 Key Technologies for Remanufacturing Welded Structures
32.3.1 Thermal Spray Technology
32.3.2 Surfacing Technology
32.3.3 Brush Plating Technology
32.3.4 Laser Remanufacturing Technology
32.3.5 Surface stick coating technology
32.4 Remanufacturing of Welded Structures and Application of Life Extension Technology
32.4.1 Anti-corrosion and life extension of ship steel plates
32.4.2 Remanufacturing of oilfield storage tanks to extend life
32.4.3 Remanufacturing of cutter blades for cutter suction dredger to extend life
32.4.4 References for Remanufacturing the Life Extension of Fermentation Tanks

Chapter 33 Computer-Aided Welded Structure Manufacturing and Production Quality Control
33.1 Overview
33.2 Manufacturing Process Design for Welded Structures
33.2.1 Welding CAPP System
33.2.2 Welding Expert System
33.2.3 Welding Database System
33.3 Welding Production Management
33.3.1 Basic Structure of Digitalization and Networking of Welding Production
33.3.2 Digitalization and Networking of Welding Production Process
33.3.3 Information Management of Welding Production
33.4 Computer Aided Inspection and Quality Management
33.4.1 Computer-aided inspection and control of welding process information
33.4.2 Application Examples of Computer Aided Detection
33.4.3 Computer-Aided Quality Management
33.4.4 References for the development of computer-aided inspection and quality management systems

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